Recent Tutoring Session Reviews
"Today we discussed ideas for the student's class project on chiral drugs and identified some potential ways to proceed with the report and presentation. Following that discussion we worked extensively on carbonyl chemistry. Specifically we were working through mechanisms of acetal and ketal formation and hydrolysis and their use as protecting groups to mask the carbonyl functionality of aldehydes and ketones. We finished up the session working on a couple synthesis problems that incorporated these concepts and also allowed us to discuss the similar/ different reactivities of ester and ketone/ aldehyde functional groups to varying reducing agents (NaBH4/LiAlH4). I requested the student to work through a mechanism of the hydrolysis of a cyclohexyl ketal and send it to me so I could check to make sure he was accomplishing all steps of the transformation correctly. We plan to meet again on Friday and are working on an additional meeting over the weekend."
"Today the student and I covered monosaccharides, the cyclization of monosaccharides (including the mechanism involved), disaccharides, the formation of them, how to differentiate between hemiacetals, acetals, and anomeric carbons in mono and disaccharides, how to identify reducing vs. non-reducing sugars, how to draw enantiomers of different sugars."
"In this session we covered reactions of alkyne. Addition of HBr or Br2 to alkyne. Anti-Markovnikov and Markovnikov addition, alkylation, hydroboration/oxidation. In addition, we discussed the hydrogenation of alkynes that leads to cis-alkene or trans-alkene. The mechanism of alkyne reactions was covered. The student was left with a worksheet covering what was discussed in the session."
"We did synthetic pathway problems that mainly involved interconverting between halogenoalkanes, alcohols, carbonyls, and carboxylic acids and its derivatives. We also went over the major reactions of organometallic compounds with carbonyls, carboxylic acid, and its derivatives. The student is making more connections between the functional groups and recalling a lot more reagents."
"We continued from the last session with a discussion on stereo-selectivity in the chemical reactions, and then we moved to nucleophilic substitution reactions. I specifically taught the student how to find correct the reagent or product if either of them is missing in the reactions. We discussed a few easy ways to figure out the missing information in the reactions."
"We covered the problems the student missed on his past exam. He understood the conformations and stereoisomers, along with R and S notations, but missed a few points on naming compounds and Newman projections. We also talked about the most recent chapter covered on reactions with alkenes and alkynes (addition reactions) and syn vs anti addition. He did well and was appreciative of the material covered."