College Chemistry : Intermolecular and Intramolecular Forces

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for College Chemistry

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Which of the following best explains the main difference between strong and weak acids or bases? 

Possible Answers:

Strong acids and bases always have multiple protons to donate or accept

Strong acids and bases are more concentrated than weaker ones

None of these

Strong acids and bases ionize completely in water whereas weak ones do not

Weak acids and bases dissociate completely in water

Correct answer:

Strong acids and bases ionize completely in water whereas weak ones do not

Explanation:

Molarity has no determination in whether an acid or base is strong or weak. Rather, molarity specifies the concentration of hydroxide or hydrogen ions in a solution. Weak Acids do not completely dissociate in water, while strong acids do. Polyprotic acids, those with more than one proton to donate, do not necessarily determine if an acid is strong (e.g. hydrochloric acid is an example of a strong, monoprotic acid). 

Example Question #1 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Which of the following molecules would you expect to have the highest boiling point?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

In order to answer this question correctly, you must remember the different types of intermolecular forces and their effects.

 only contains London dispersion forces. Since it is a smaller molecule compared to the others, it cannot have the highest boiling point.

 also only contains London dispersion forces. However, since it is a bigger molecule, it will have a higher boiling point than .

While  contains both London dispersion forces and dipole-dipole interactions, it lacks hydrogen boding as the fluorine atom is attached directly to the second carbon.

 has the highest boiling point because it contains London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole interactions, and hydrogen bonding.

Example Question #2 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Which molecule will not form hydrogen bonds?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

A hydrogen bond refers to the attraction between a hydrogen attached to an electronegative atom of one molecule and an electronegative atom of another molecule. The atoms which commonly form hydrogen bonds are oxygen, nitrogen, and fluorine, which are very electronegative. When a hydrogen bond forms between hydrogen and one of these three atoms, hydrogen gains a partial positive charge while the electronegative atom gains a partial negative charge. Carbon is not a very electronegative atom and thus cannot form a hydrogen bond.

Example Question #2 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Is  an atomic element, molecular element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?

Possible Answers:

Ionic compound

Molecular compound

Atomic element

Molecular element

Correct answer:

Ionic compound

Explanation:

 is an ionic compound because it is composed of a metal and a nonmetal.

Example Question #3 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Is  an atomic element, molecular element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?

Possible Answers:

molecular element

Molecular compound

ionic compound

Atomic element

Correct answer:

Molecular compound

Explanation:

 is a molecular compound because it consists of a nonmetal connected to another nonmetal.

Example Question #5 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

classifying compounds/elements

Is xenon an atomic element, molecular element, molecular compound, or ionic compound?

Possible Answers:

Molecular compound

Atomic element

Ionic compound

Molecular element

Correct answer:

Atomic element

Explanation:

Xenon is an atomic element because its elemental form consists of one atom.

Example Question #4 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Which of the following C-N bonds is the shortest?

Possible Answers:

The C-N bond in .

The C-N bond in .

The C-N bond in .

The C-N bond in .

Correct answer:

The C-N bond in .

Explanation:

Drawing the Lewis Diagrams for these molecules reveals that the C-N bond in  is a triple covalent bond, whereas the C-N bonds in  and  are double covalent bonds and the C-N bond in  is a single covalent bond. Triple covalent bonds between two given atoms are always stronger than double bonds between these same two atoms, and similarly double bonds are even stronger than single bonds. Bond length is inversely related to bond strength; therefore a shorter bond is a stronger bond, and triple covalent bonds are shorter than either double or single covalent bonds. Thus, the C-N bond in  is the shortest in length.

Example Question #5 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Three types of intermolecular forces include: hydrogen bonding, London dispersion forces, and dipole-dipole interactions. Which of these is the strongest intermolecular force?

Possible Answers:

Hydrogen bonding

These are all equally strong

London dispersion forces

Dipole-dipole interactions

Correct answer:

Hydrogen bonding

Explanation:

London dispersion forces are the weakest of the three. Every molecule is composed of electrons, which are free to move around. This can create a temporary charge, on any molecule, at any time. When two molecules come close together, their varying charges can orient such that one end of a molecule may be slightly positive, while the end of a nearby molecule may be slightly negative. This leads to a slight attraction between the two molecules, called London dispersion forces until they move around again. This is a weak, temporary force.

Dipole-dipole interactions develop when polar compounds line up and are attracted to each other. These forces are stronger than London dispersion forces due to the permanency of the dipoles, but weaker than hydrogen bonds. 

Hydrogen bonds are the strongest force of the three. The name refers to the attractive force between the hydrogen attached to one electronegative atom (usually oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine) and an electronegative atom of a different molecule. The electronegative atom gains a partial negative charge, while the hydrogen gains a partial positive charge. These forces are responsible for many of the qualities of water.

Example Question #8 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Which of the following elements does not exist as a diatomic molecule?

Possible Answers:

Ne

O

Cl

N

Correct answer:

Ne

Explanation:

Ne is the only element that does not exist as a diatomic molecule because it is a noble gas, meaning it has a stable resting valence electron configuration, and exists simply as an atomic molecule. By comparison, N, O, and Cl can all achieve stable states by forming a diatomic molecule.  and  are held together by a single covalent bond, or shared electron pair.  is held together by sharing two electron pairs (two covalent bonds), and  by sharing three pairs.

Example Question #9 : Intermolecular And Intramolecular Forces

Molecules experiencing which of the following intermolecular forces will tend to have the highest melting point?

Possible Answers:

Dipole-dipole interaction

Ion-ion interaction

Hydrogen bonding

Dispersion/van der Waals forces

Correct answer:

Ion-ion interaction

Explanation:

Generally, the stronger the intermolecular forces between molecules, the higher a compound's melting point. This trend is due to the fact that in melting, the distance between molecules increases, a process which is counteracted by any intermolecular forces pulling them together. The ion-ion interaction forces between ionic compounds - the attraction of positively charged and negatively charged ions - are the strongest. The greater strength of this intermolecular force is due to the greater separation of charge between species. In decreasing order of strength after that would be hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole interaction, and dispersion forces. Thus, molecules undergoing ion-ion interactions will have the highest melting point, followed by those undergoing Hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole interaction, and dispersion in that order.

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