AP World History : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 to 1900

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

In part as a result of industrialization, wealth and power in Western Europe __________.

Possible Answers:

shifted from the middle class to the working class 

shifted from landed aristocrats to bourgeois capitalists

returned to traditional absolutist monarchs 

was shared equally amongst all people

promoted an end to imperialism 

Correct answer:

shifted from landed aristocrats to bourgeois capitalists

Explanation:

The rise of industry sees the political and financial rise of industrialists, which encourages investing in new foreign territories. Any monarchs that tried to return to eighteenth-century styles of rule were quickly overthrown, and while the middle class grew wealthier, the working class did not follow suit. 

Example Question #2 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

In French society, the first Estate represented the __________.

Possible Answers:

Merchants

Nobles

Peasants 

Clergy

Correct answer:

Clergy

Explanation:

French Society before the Revolution was divided into three factions, those who pray, those who rule, and everyone else. This meant the First Estate was the Clergy, the Second the nobility, and the third estate was the rest of society (including peasants and merchants).

Example Question #2 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

In the 1800's there was a rise of groups who attempted to bring workers together to collectively bargain with employers for better pay and working conditions. What were these groups called?

Possible Answers:

Labor unions

Organized labor

Trade unions

Councils

Correct answer:

Labor unions

Explanation:

The 1800's saw the birth of labor unions. Today they are simply referred to as unions. These groups met much violent resistance to their calls for better working conditions, pay, and hours. Over time they achieved their goals of making the factories safer places to work, with shorter hours and better pay.

Example Question #1 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

The Industrial Revolution saw the rise of a new idea. This was that a person could work hard, save money, and move up the social ladder. What was this belief called?

Possible Answers:

Social mobility

The American Dream

Vertical mobility

Social climbing

Correct answer:

Social mobility

Explanation:

The idea that one could change their circumstances was called social mobility. This meant that a person who worked hard and saved money could save enough to advance up in class from a lower class to a higher one. At the time very few people made the transition from lower to upper class though. This was often due to the very poor wages paid by most of the factories at the time, which kept the workers just barely above the poverty line.

Example Question #5 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

The industrial revolution led to major changes in western social structures, which of the following was not one of these changes? 

Possible Answers:

The development of the cult of domesticity idealizing the role of women as housekeeper

The growth of secondary schools, and public education

The evolution of a social gospel that encouraged believers to engage in social charity

The emergence of a highly influential middle class

Ethical objections to new scientific thinking and accompanying legal structures to restrict scientific experimentation

Correct answer:

Ethical objections to new scientific thinking and accompanying legal structures to restrict scientific experimentation

Explanation:

While the industrial revolution led to strict temperance and strong moral values, none of them opposed scientific discovery. In fact, new advances in science and technology were one of the greatest achievements of the era. Without new technology there would be no industrial revolution. 

Example Question #763 : Sat Subject Test In World History

The Reform Bill of 1832 __________.

Possible Answers:

Reinstated the monarchy in France 

Abolished serfdom in Russia

Extended voting rights to the British middle class 

Reinstated freedom of the press in Russia

Allowed for universal manhood suffrage in Britain

Correct answer:

Extended voting rights to the British middle class 

Explanation:

The Reform Bill of 1832 was passed in the British parliament to “amend the representation of the people of England and Wales.” Prior to the Reform Bill, only a very small percentage of the population was able to vote, roughly five hundred thousand out of a population of thirteen million. The Reform Bill extended voting rights to an additional few hundred thousand men from the emerging industrial middle class. Although the percentage of the British population who could participate in government was still lower than ten percent, the Reform Bill represents the first step in Britain towards truly representative democracy.

Example Question #6 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

Karl Marx and Freidrich Engles are credited with formulating what political theory? 

Possible Answers:

Scientific Socialism

Democracy

Social Nationalism

Anarchism

Capitalism

Correct answer:

Scientific Socialism

Explanation:

Marx and Engels are credited with fully theorizing the process of a nation moving toward what they called Scientific Socialism. This theory stood in opposition to capitalism (which was formulated by Adam Smith) and focuses on the power of the masses and especially the working class. Additionally, their theory sought to reduce economic uncertainty, provide an adequate amount of goods for every citizen, and reduce inequality in society. 

Example Question #3 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

During the Mexican Revolution, Emiliano Zapata campaigned for ______________.

Possible Answers:

economic reforms and the rights of the Mexican middle class

closing Mexican borders to immigrants from Europe and North America

opening Mexican markets to foreign companies

land reforms and improving the rights of the Mexican peasantry

industrialization and modernization of the Mexican military

Correct answer:

land reforms and improving the rights of the Mexican peasantry

Explanation:

Emiliano Zapata campaigned extensively for land reforms and improving the rights of the Mexican peasantry. Zapata lived in southern Mexico where almost all of the land was owned by small landowning elites who monopolized control of land and water. Zapata wanted to reform this situation and improve the access to land and water for Mexico’s peasant population.

Example Question #4 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

Which social group of Revolutionary-era French society were known as “émigrés?”

Possible Answers:

Catholic clergy

Anti-monarchy nobles

Urban guild workers

Exiled aristocrats

peasants from the countryside

Correct answer:

Exiled aristocrats

Explanation:

In the chaos and tumult of Revolutionary-era France, social status and class distinctions were constantly in flux. A new sub-class, known as emigres, emerged. These emigres were aristocrats who were especially loyal to the King and the entire royal family. Fearing that political conditions in their home country were about to take a perilous turn, the emigres fled France to start new lives in neighboring countries. In total, about sixteen thousand emigres departed France over the course of the decade between 1789 and 1799. However, they had no intentions of abandoning their beloved monarchy to the revolutionary forces; from their self-imposed exile, many emigres sponsored anti-revolutionary campaigns, plots, and disturbances back in France. The most consequential émigré was King Louis XVI’s younger brother, the count of Artois, who fled the country in 1791 and then orchestrated his older brother’s unsuccessful escape attempt from Paris later that same year.

Example Question #2 : Socioeconomic Classes 1750 To 1900

During the Tokugawa Shogunate what happened to the status of Daimyos?

Possible Answers:

It declined slightly as Daimyos were forbidden from entering the Japanese court

It increased significantly as Daimyos were given land previously held by the emperor

It declined significantly as land was taken from powerful Daimyos and redistributed according to the Shogun’s wishes

It increased significantly as Daimyos were excluded from military service and given other special privileges within society

It declined dramatically as Daimyos were forced to serve in the imperial army

Correct answer:

It declined significantly as land was taken from powerful Daimyos and redistributed according to the Shogun’s wishes

Explanation:

Prior to the Tokugawa Shogunate and the unification of Japan, Daimyos had been powerful feudal landowners and rulers in Japanese society. However, during the Tokugawa Shogunate the power of the Daimyos declined significantly as the rulers of Japan consolidated their power. The land, which had been held by the Daimyos for centuries, was redistributed and with the loss of their land the Daimyos also lost most of their power.

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