AP World History : Science and Technology 1450 to 1750

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #41 : Science And Technology

Which of these innovations did not come to Europe from China?

Possible Answers:

Opium

Block Printing

The Compass

Gunpowder

Paper-making

Correct answer:

Opium

Explanation:

Contrary to popular belief Opium was brought to China by European and Middle Eastern merchants during the Tang. It did not become popular as a recreational drug until the Ming era. Gunpowder, paper-making, block printing, and the compass were all introduced to European society following interaction with Chinese merchants.

Example Question #1 : Science And Technology 1450 To 1750

During the wars of 17th century Europe, firearms became increasingly effective but still required significant time to reload, and musketeers need flexibility, so they were not heavily armored, all of which made them prime prey for the enemy, especially the fast reaction of cavalry. In response, European armies developed a system of combined arms known as "pike and shot," in which ___________________.

Possible Answers:

musketeers fired while standing on the flanks of tightly formed pikemen and retreated behind them in order to reload

holes were dug at an angle with firearms placed in them, to be used only specifically against cavalry charges

firearms were disguised as pikes

pikes doubled as firearms, muzzles appearing alongside the blade

musketeers were trained to fire only a single volley before picking up pikes

Correct answer:

musketeers fired while standing on the flanks of tightly formed pikemen and retreated behind them in order to reload

Explanation:

The evolution of firearms depends on many factors, including the quality of powder and different trigger mechanisms, but "pike and shot" was a stalwart concept for military planners throughout the 17th century.

Muskets, and the earlier arquebuses, were not lethal for only one shot to influence many battles; to justify the cost, musketeers had to fire multiple shots.

Because muskets are muzzle loading, they are difficult to reload with blades attached.

Disguising firearms as pikes may have occurred in individual battles, but it was never a major component of warfare.

Some of the earliest firearms used in Europe included anti-cavalry mortars, but this was hundreds of years earlier than the 17th century, and was too unreliable to sufficiently protect musketeers from cavalry.

Example Question #43 : Science And Technology

The rapid industrialization of Japan in the late nineteenth century had as its impetus __________.

Possible Answers:

the consolidation of authority under the Shogunate

the fall of the Shogunate and the Restoration of the Meiji Emperor

the decline of the Emperor's authority in official state functions

the Shogunate's defeat by Chinese armies and navies

the defeat of Chinese navies and armies by the Shogunate

Correct answer:

the fall of the Shogunate and the Restoration of the Meiji Emperor

Explanation:

The Meiji Restoration refers to the moment in 1868 when the authority of the Emperor of Japan was renewed over the authority of the Shogunate, which had effectively ruled Japan since 1603. Due to authoritarian disputes with lesser nobles, the Shogun was pushed out of a position of power. In the process of taking back power, the Meiji Emperor also sought to rapidly industrialize and modernize the nation, creating a western style industry, military, and government.

Example Question #44 : Science And Technology

What was the main argument of Copernican Heliocentrism?

Possible Answers:

The Earth is the center of the universe

The Sun and the planets revolve around the Earth

The orbit of the planets is elliptical and not a perfect circle

The Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun

Earth's moon is not perfectly smooth, but instead contains craters

Correct answer:

The Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun

Explanation:

Heliocentrism-the idea that the Earth and the other planets in the solar system revolve around the Sun-was popularized by the publication of Nicolaus Copernicus' On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres in 1543. Prior to this the theory of geocentrism-the idea that the Sun and the other planets revolved around the Earth-was popular, but several ancient Greeks and Medieval Arab scholars proposed ideas similar to Copernicus' heliocentism. 

Example Question #2 : Science And Technology 1450 To 1750

European invaders possessed each of the following technological advantages over the Native groups they encountered in the New World except ____________________.

Possible Answers:

access to firearms

access to steel weapons and armor

access to horses

experience with domesticated animals

access to ocean-going ships

Correct answer:

experience with domesticated animals

Explanation:

Native groups domesticated many different animal species, such as llama in the Andean region, centuries before the contact with Columbus and his crew in 1492. Technologies like domesticated horses and steel armor gave Europeans advantage in battle with Native groups, even when the Europeans were outnumbered. It should be noted, however, that historians believe that the most important cause for the massive number of fatalities among Native peoples after contact with Europeans was due to exposure to European diseases like small pox. Native peoples had never been exposed to these diseases and, consequently, had no natural resistance to them. 

Example Question #46 : Science And Technology

Galileo was accused and convicted of heresy by the Inquisition in 1633 for what reason?

Possible Answers:

He argued that Jupiter was orbited by at least four moons

He argued that the Moon contained craters and mountains

He defended the idea that the Sun and the other planets revolve around the Earth

He argued that the Sun was not an unblemished sphere, but instead contained sunspots

He defended the idea that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun

Correct answer:

He defended the idea that the Earth and the other planets revolve around the Sun

Explanation:

Galileo was not the first astronomer to argue that the Earth and the other planets revolved around the Sun, but he defended the idea in several of his writings. Galileo's advocacy for heliocentrism put him at odds with Church officials who feared that acceptance of the idea would lead to doubts about the truth of Christianity, since passages in the Bible claimed that the Earth was unmovable. Galileo was forced by the Inquisition to recant his previous advocacy of heliocentrism, and he was sentenced to house arrest for the rest of his life. 

Example Question #47 : Science And Technology

Which of the following technologies had the greatest impact on the spread of the Protestant Reformation in the sixteenth century?

Possible Answers:

The steam engine

The sextant

The telescope

The compass

The printing press

Correct answer:

The printing press

Explanation:

Gutenberg's printing press made it much easier to create a large number of copies of written works. Use of the printing press allowed the ideas of Martin Luther and his supporters to spread rapidly. The printing press also allowed a much larger number of literate people to own their own copies of the Bible, which they could interpret without intervention from Catholic clergy.

Example Question #48 : Science And Technology

"The first [rule] was never to accept anything for true which I did not clearly know to be such."

Adapted from Rene Descartes' Discourse on the Method (1637)

Descartes' quote had the greatest impact on which of the following ideas?

Possible Answers:

The theory of gravity

The Protestant Reformation

The Theory of Evolution

Newton's laws of motion

The Scientific Method

Correct answer:

The Scientific Method

Explanation:

The French philosopher Rene Descartes argued that beliefs should not be based solely on faith, but instead on observations of what is going on in the natural world. These ideas influenced the development of the Scientific Method for experimentation. Scientists base their conclusions on what actually happens in the experiment, and not on what they expected to happen prior to the experiment.

Example Question #49 : Science And Technology

Isaac Newton's discoveries had an impact on each of the following fields of Science and Mathematics except _________________.

Possible Answers:

genetics

optics

calculus

mechanics and gravitation

physics

Correct answer:

genetics

Explanation:

Isaac Newton was one of the most important scientists in human history. Among other discoveries, his formulation of the Theory of Gravity helped to explain why the planets orbit the sun and why objects fall to the Earth. Discoveries in genetics, or how living organisms inherit traits from their parents, would not be mad until a few centuries after Newton's death.

Example Question #50 : Science And Technology

In Himalayan art, large metal images are usually created by embossing, rather than casting, because ________________.

Possible Answers:

of economic considerations

casting technology has only existed in the region since the modern era

of spiritual considerations

casting technology was brought to Tibet by the Chinese Communist Party

the high altitude of the Himalayas makes metal casting impossible

Correct answer:

of economic considerations

Explanation:

The main reason that Himalayan art uses more embossing than casting is because embossing is cheaper.

Economic considerations, not spiritual ones, were the main reasons why Himalayan art was more often embossed, rather than casted.

Casting technology has existed in the Himalayans for thousands of years, long before the modern era and the rule of the Chinese Communist Party.

The Himalayas' altitude does not make metal casting impossible.

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