AP World History : Religions 600 CE to 1450

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #54 : Cultural History

Which of the following is not one of the Five Pillars of Islam?

Possible Answers:

Fasting during Ramadan

Pilgrimage to Mecca 

Marriage before an imam 

Paying a tithe for the needy

Prayer five times a day

Correct answer:

Marriage before an imam 

Explanation:

Faith--the belief that there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is his Prophet--is the missing pillar here, not marriage. 

Example Question #1 : Religions 600 Ce To 1450

Which of these is not an ideological difference that contributed to the schism between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches?

Possible Answers:

The Supremacy of the Pope

The Virgin Birth

The use of leavened bread in communion 

Married men entering the priesthood 

Latin Vs Greek as the language of the church 

Correct answer:

The Virgin Birth

Explanation:

The Virgin birth is a core tenet of Christian faith. The others are all examples of practices that different factions within the Church debated. 

Example Question #56 : Cultural History

Which of the following is not a pillar of Islam?

Possible Answers:

Pilgrimage to Mecca

Alms-giving

Fasting during Ramadan

Prayer five times daily

Celibacy of Clerics

Correct answer:

Celibacy of Clerics

Explanation:

Muslim clerics are encouraged to marry and have families in contrast to the Catholic Church. The other four listed answers are, indeed, pillars of Islam. The fifth pillar of Islam (not listed) refers to the purity of faith. 

Example Question #57 : Cultural History

Which of the following societies was not defined by the belief in a polytheistic religion?

Possible Answers:

The Mughal Empire

The Aztec Empire

Ancient Egypt 

Ancient Greece

The Ottoman Empire

Correct answer:

The Ottoman Empire

Explanation:

The Ottoman Empire was filled with believers of Judaism, Orthodox Christianity, and Islam, all monotheistic religions. The Mughal Empire was characterized by the peaceful co-existence of Muslim and Hindu believers. Ancient Greece was characterized by a polytheistic religious belief system, as were Ancient Greece and Egypt, as well as the Aztec Empire.

Example Question #55 : Ap World History

Mansa Musa, Emperor of Mali, made a famous pilgrimage to Mecca as he was a devout _____________.

Possible Answers:

Hindu

Jew

Muslim

Buddhist

Christian

Correct answer:

Muslim

Explanation:

Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim; pilgrimage to Mecca is considered a holy commandment by many devout Muslims. Devout Christians and Jews view Jerusalem as the holiest city and the most important pilgrimage site. Mali has never had a large Hindu or Buddhist community, nor have they ever had a ruler practice either of those religions.

Example Question #56 : Ap World History

Which sect of Christianity is most closely associated with Iconography?

Possible Answers:

Calvinism

Puritanism

Quakerism

Protestantism

Eastern Orthodox

Correct answer:

Eastern Orthodox

Explanation:

The use of Icons to depict saints, the messiah, and Mary became synonymous with the orthodox churches of the Byzantine and Russian Empires. Quakerism, Puritanism, and Calvinism are all branches of Protestantism that admonished the Catholic traditions of iconography that they claim broke the commandment against idol worship.

Example Question #60 : Cultural History

Which religious practice is a fusion of Islamic and Hindu influences?

Possible Answers:

Shi'a

Sikhism

Shari'a

Orthodox Hinduism

Sunni

Correct answer:

Sikhism

Explanation:

Sikhism emerged from the spread of Islamic powers into the Indian Sub-Continent. Because of its geo-political beginnings, Sikhism remains strongest in the southern part of Pakistan and Northern India where the two cultures clashed.

Example Question #4 : Religions 600 Ce To 1450

Which principle of Islam can be interpreted to mean "Holy War"?

Possible Answers:

Zakat

Sawm

Salat

Hajj

Jihad

Correct answer:

Jihad

Explanation:

Jihad refers to "struggle" while for some it means a struggle for purity and faith, others interpret it as a duty to protect the Islam faith by destroying threats (including non believers). The other terms refer to pillars of Islam such as charity, prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage.

Example Question #2 : Religions 600 Ce To 1450

Select the correct rationale that led the Catholic Church to move its papal headquarters from Rome to Avignon in 1309.

Possible Answers:

To escape escalating pressure from the French king

An increased need to ensure the Pope’s physical security

Papal concern over Roman political corruption

Architectural instability of the Vatican

Correct answer:

To escape escalating pressure from the French king

Explanation:

For several years prior to the papal move to Avignon, the Pope had been involved in numerous instances of confrontations, arguments, and other high-pressure situations with both the English King Edward I and the French ruler Philip IV. King Philip IV was particularly persistent and oppositional, challenging several Popes – both Pope Boniface VIII and Pope Benedict XI faced off against Philip IV, struggling to assert political dominance and expand their influence over the French king. Philip IV was equally determined not to cede dominance within French territory to the Papacy; he felt that as the French monarch, the ultimate influence over the French people, both politically and religiously, should stem from his direction. After numerous instances of conflict, including an incident in 1303 in which the French Army attacked Boniface VIII and nearly killed him, the new Pope Clement V made the fateful decision to move himself and his Papacy outside of French reach. To that end, in 1309, Pope Clement V departed Rome and the Vatican for Avignon, setting up headquarters on land privately owned by the Pope himself. Avignon would remain the new Papal headquarters – a substitute Vatican City – until 1377.

Example Question #3 : Religions 600 Ce To 1450

Select the primary cause of the Great Schism within the Catholic Church.

Possible Answers:

The seizure and captivity of several cardinals by French King Charles V

Conflict over the best physical/geopolitical site for the Church’s headquarters

Suspicions of foul play arising from the Pope’s sudden death

Increasing pressure being placed by the public over the continued sale of indulgences

Correct answer:

Conflict over the best physical/geopolitical site for the Church’s headquarters

Explanation:

The Great Schism, as the conflict is known, first began in 1378, when, after the death of Pope Gregory XI, a new Pope, Urban IV, was elected from Rome. The recently deceased Pope Gregory XI had moved the papacy back to Rome from Avignon before his passing, but many of the cardinals, including a large French majority, favored a return to Avignon and hoped that the new Pope Urban IV would agree. As a native citizen of Rome, with mass support from the local Italian populace, Pope Urban IV naturally wanted to remain in his home region. When it began to seem increasingly unlikely that the new Pope would support another departure from Rome for Avignon, several cardinals gathered together in secret that same year and, of their volition, elected a new Pope, Clement VII, who, as a cousin of the French King Charles V, had his own ties to Avignon. Suddenly, the Church had two Popes, one in Rome and one that began to ensconce himself in Avignon, each with powerful supporters and popular attendants – and, of course, neither Pope was going to step down in favor of the other. And thus the Great Schism, the competing reign of two separate but simultaneous Popes, was born. This situation would last until 1417, despite several attempts by Church administrators to resolve the matter.

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