AP World History : Political Protest, Reforms, and Revolution 1450 to 1750

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

Which of the following documents seriously limited the English king’s power for the first time since the Magna Carta?

Possible Answers:

Treaty of Paris

Bill of Rights

Declaration of Rights

Petition of Right

Correct answer:

Petition of Right

Explanation:

In 1628 Parliament passed the Petition of Right, which set out guidelines for subjects on which the king had limited or no authority. The Bill of Rights refers to the first ten amendments to the American Constitution. Declaration of Rights refers to the 1776 American political document. The Treaty of Paris refers to the document that ended the American Revolutionary War.

Example Question #2 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

After the English Civil War, the new rights of English citizens could be found in the __________.

Possible Answers:

Declaration of Right

Magna Carta

Petition of Right

Bill of Rights

Correct answer:

Declaration of Right

Explanation:

In the wake of the English Civil War, Parliament invited William and Mary to rule over the nation, but insisted that they agree to the Declaration of Right, which outlined rights of the people, before they could take the throne.

Example Question #3 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

Name the relatively peaceful overthrow of the English Monarchy that occurred between 1688-1689.

Possible Answers:

The English Civil War

The Magnificent Rebellion

The Reign of Terror

The Scottish-Dutch Incursion

The Glorious Revolution

Correct answer:

The Glorious Revolution

Explanation:

King James II was dethroned and William, Prince of Orange and his wife Mary, daughter of James II, were made co-regents, king and queen. This change in power also resulted in the English Bill of Rights, which predates the American Bill of Rights by about 100 years.

Example Question #4 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

Select the religious group that posed the greatest challenge to Queen Elizabeth I’s reign.

Possible Answers:

Puritans/Presbyterians 

Catholics 

Evangelicals 

Calvinists 

Congregationalists 

Correct answer:

Catholics 

Explanation:

While Queen Elizabeth I’s efforts to establish religious toleration within her country were largely quite successful, it was of course impossible for her to ensure the agreement of every English citizen. Elizabeth I’s Act of Supremacy angered and distressed not just some English Catholics but also Catholics across Western Europe, including those in Spain and Scotland, who felt that the Queen was polluting the Catholic faith through her Anglican Church. Throughout her long reign, the Queen faced numerous assassination attempts made on her life by Catholic assassins (who were either Catholic themselves or hired by internal/external Catholic forces). Spanish Catholics even attempted to murder Elizabeth I and replace her with her cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots. Elizabeth I also faced opposition from other, less prominent, and less numerous religious groups. The Puritans – aka Presbyterians – were loyal to the essential concept of Anglicanism but they objected to some of the Catholic rituals that the national faith had retained. Elizabeth I acted shrewdly so as not to alienate the Puritans; she allowed them to form their own separate worshiping societies so long as they agreed not to challenge her position of ultimate power. The Congregationalists posed a bit more difficulty. These individuals were former Puritans who had left that group due to their more radical ideas and they refused to acknowledge Elizabeth I’s control over the Anglican Church or over England itself. Faced with such a seemingly anarchist threat, Elizabeth I and Parliament passed the Conventicle Act in 1593, which informed all Congregationalists that they must return to the Anglican Church on the penalty of exile or execution.

Example Question #5 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

Select the primary motivation behind the English Parliament’s withdrawal of support from King James II and its instigation of the Glorious Revolution.

Possible Answers:

King James II’s public conversion to Catholicism

King James II’s dissolution of Parliament

The birth of a male Catholic heir to the throne

The 1687 Declaration of Indulgence

Correct answer:

The birth of a male Catholic heir to the throne

Explanation:

After King Charles II died in 1685, his brother James II became the new King of England. Immediately, Parliament was put on the defensive both because of James’s public support for English Catholics and his own recent public conversion to Catholicism. When Parliament refused to repeal the discriminatory Test Act, James dissolved the legislative body and appointed his own Catholic officials instead. The situation took another dire turn when James issued the 1687 Declaration of Indulgence, repealing the Test Act and allowing religious toleration, which was followed by the imprisonment of several oppositional Anglican clergy. It seemed that Parliament’s worst fears about their King and Catholics were coming true. The final straw came on June 20th, 1688, when James’s wife (who was also Catholic) gave birth to a baby boy. This sent Parliament into panic-mode – there was now a Catholic male heir to the English throne, who seemed poised to create a Catholic ruling dynasty in England. The frightened Parliament decided it had only one option to maintain its Anglican hold on the country: James would have to be removed from power and replaced with a Protestant ruler. In a bold and unprecedented move, Parliament wrote to William III of Orange, the current leader of the United Province of the Netherlands and a devout Protestant, and invited him to assemble his army, invade England, and evict James from the throne! This event, which succeeded, came to be known as the Glorious Revolution.

Example Question #6 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

Which of the following statements about England’s Glorious Revolution is FALSE?

Possible Answers:

William III ruled alongside his celebrated wife, Queen Mary II

Parliament passed the Bill of Rights, which limited the new monarch’s powers

The majority of English citizens were supportive of William of Orange’s invasion of their nation

William passed the Toleration Act of 1689, extending religious toleration to all Catholics and Puritans who swore an oath of loyalty to the English crown

Correct answer:

William passed the Toleration Act of 1689, extending religious toleration to all Catholics and Puritans who swore an oath of loyalty to the English crown

Explanation:

England’s Glorious Revolution unfolded in 1688, as William III of Orange and his army swept into the country. Compared to many other historic revolutions, this one was quite unique – overall, it proceeded quite calmly. The great majority of English citizens welcomed their new Parliament-chosen ruler. Consequently, William’s army didn’t face any opposition and was able to take over the country without engaging in a single instance of combat. The former King James II was allowed to escape the country unharmed and in 1689, Parliament formally appointed William III and his wife, Mary II, as King and Queen of England. As part of Parliament’s endorsement, a Bill of Rights was passed, which limited the new monarch’s powers. Under this Bill, William and Mary were treated as ordinary citizens under the law, Parliament couldn’t be dissolved for more than three years, Parliament was granted a say in choosing the nation’s next rulers, and any Catholic was permanently banned from occupying the English throne. In 1689, with William’s support, Parliament furthered this policy by passing the Toleration Act. While its name may sound otherwise, the Toleration Act actually restricted English Catholics even further. Under this Act, they were not allowed to worship freely and had no political rights in the new regime.

Example Question #7 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

King Louis XIV of France engaged in several acts of religious repression that angered both his subjects and outside observers. Which of Louis’s policies was widely regarded by contemporaries as the most controversial and damaging?

Possible Answers:

His persecution of Jansenists

His public conversion to atheism

His revocation of the Edict of Nantes

His secret Treaty of Dover

Correct answer:

His revocation of the Edict of Nantes

Explanation:

Just as King Louis XIV of France was determined to establish supremacy and security along France’s borders, he was equally as determined to control every inch of French political, social, and economic life. In his eyes, absolute control would bring him absolute power. In keeping with this mindset, Louis decided that the best way to keep order over his subjects was to embark on a campaign of religious conformity; by eradicating religious dissent, he believed he would partially rid his nation of any political dissent as well. To that end, Louis implemented many repressive religious policies and also banned outright several religious orders, such as the popular Jansenists. While many of these methods stirred up opposition amongst isolated patches of the French population, they didn’t provoke widespread popular discontent. But Louis made a terrible miscalculation in 1685 which entirely changed the status quo. In 1685, he revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had permitted French Catholics (known as Huguenots) to worship freely, and began to crack down on Huguenots in particular. His revocation of the Edict of Nantes outraged many French citizens, even those individuals who were not Huguenots but who nevertheless had regarded the historic Edict as a valuable peacekeeping tool that had prevented religious warfare in the country for many decades. Fearing for their liberties and personal safety, Huguenots left France in droves, which caused the economy to suffer greatly. Opposition to the revocation also arose outside France as well, as Protestants all across Europe began to consider Louis a dangerous threat to religious toleration and coexistence. Essentially, the revocation put a target on King Louis XIV’s back, one that was visible from both within and without his country’s borders.

Example Question #8 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

The rise of the Russian Empire began after rulers in Moscow overthrew __________.

Possible Answers:

Finnish princes

Mongol rulers

Polish princes

Ottoman governors

Chinese governors

Correct answer:

Mongol rulers

Explanation:

After the Mongol conquests of the thirteenth century, Mongol rulers (known as the Golden Horde and then the Great Horde) reigned over Muscovy for two centuries. In 1480, the Russian Prince Ivan III defeated the remaining forces of the Great Horde and ended the rule of the Mongols over Muscovy, thus establishing the independent Russian state.

Example Question #9 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

Which of these statements about Peter the Great is least accurate?

Possible Answers:

He was committed to making Russia a constitutional monarchy

He improved the Russian navy dramatically

He centralized authority in Russia under the Tsarist regime

He extended freedoms and civil liberties to women and other disenfranchised members of Russian society

He led modernizing and westernizing reforms in Russia

Correct answer:

He was committed to making Russia a constitutional monarchy

Explanation:

Peter the Great was a great modernizing force in Russian society. He implemented many reforms in an attempt to make Russia more westernized. He also centralized authority under his Tsarist regime and extended freedoms and civil liberties to women. Notable he made dramatic improvements to the Russian navy and even constructed the city of St. Petersburg so that Russia might have an important port city in the Baltic. He was not, however, committed to making Russia a constitutional monarchy. Rather he preserved and strengthened the institutions of his own autocratic rule.

Example Question #10 : Political Protest, Reforms, And Revolution 1450 To 1750

What happened when James II took over the monarchy of England?

Possible Answers:

He was captured and executed by rebels

He was captured and executed by Parliament

He was peacefully deposed and replaced with a Catholic alternative

He was peacefully deposed and replaced with a Protestant alternative

He was violently deposed and replaced with a Catholic alternative

Correct answer:

He was peacefully deposed and replaced with a Protestant alternative

Explanation:

James II ascended to the English throne in 1685 and ruled for three years before he was peacefully deposed in the so-called Glorious Revolution. James II was not a very palatable choice for monarch, from parliament’s perspective, due to the fact that he was an absolutist and a Catholic. The English Parliament, fresh from their victory in the English Civil War, refused to accept James II’s reign and invited William of Orange (the ruler of the Netherlands) to ascend the throne. William, and his wife Mary, became King and Queen of England in exchange for passing the English Bill of Rights, which, among other things, guaranteed the supremacy of Parliament.

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