AP World History : Philosophies and Ideologies 600 BCE to 600 CE

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which of the following ideologies acted as a guideline for the Chinese bureaucratic system during the reign of every Chinese dynasty from the late centuries BCE through the modern period?

Possible Answers:

Islam

Buddhism

Taoism

Confucianism

Shinto

Correct answer:

Confucianism

Explanation:

Since its establishment in the late centuries BCE, Confucianism acted as the official social ideology for all levels of Chinese society through the Qing dynasty.  It was especially important amongst Chinese scholars and bureaucrats, who were referred to as Confucian Scholars.  Buddhism, though important in China, more affected people's perception of the afterlife.

Example Question #2 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Prior to the emperor Constantine's conversion to Christianity, the Roman empire was officially polytheistic, which meant that Roman officials worshipped ______________.

Possible Answers:

the ocean

one all-powerful God

their own worldly virtue

the sky

many gods

Correct answer:

many gods

Explanation:

Polytheists worship many gods.

Monotheists worship one God.

Polytheists may have gods representing the ocean or the sky, but it is not a prerequisite.

Many Romans certainly lauded worldly virtue, but their worship was devoted to multiple gods.

Example Question #3 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which philosophy gained popularity throughout the Roman Empire until the rule of Justinian I? 

Possible Answers:

Realism

Modernism

Confucianism

Stoicism

Existentialism

Correct answer:

Stoicism

Explanation:

Stoicism was developed in Ancient Greece, and gained popularity throughout the Roman Empire with their beliefs of accepting one's fate, and using self control to rid destructive emotions from the mind. It was widely practiced until the imposition of Christianity as a state religion by Justinian I.

Example Question #4 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Which of these historical figures is known as the "Father of Western Medicine"?

Possible Answers:

Hippocrates

Plato

Socrates

Aristotle

Julius Caesar

Correct answer:

Hippocrates

Explanation:

Hippocrates, who lived from 460 BCE until 370 BCE, is widely considered the father of western medicine for his contributions to the Hippocratic schools of medicine as well as the Hippocratic Oath. He is also credited with making major advances in the clinical medicine as well as condensing existing medial knowledge into more usable medical texts. Additionally, Hippocrates was the first western physician to categorize diseases into various categories including acute and chronic.

Example Question #5 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

Ashoka the Great is often remembered for __________.

Possible Answers:

his military reforms

his skilled diplomacy

his religious tolerance

the massacre at Amritsar

his economic reforms

Correct answer:

his religious tolerance

Explanation:

Ashoka the Great (268 - 232 B.C.E.) is a complicated figure in the history of the Indian subcontinent. He conquered the vast majority of the subcontinent as ruler of the Mauryan Dynasty. Naturally, as a conqueror, his actions involved a great deal of bloodshed and death. Yet, at some point, he appears to have developed regret. He turned away from violence and towards Buddhism. He encouraged religious tolerance in India, and this became his most enduring legacy. 

Example Question #6 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

The philosophies of Confucius were primarily designed to __________.

Possible Answers:

protect the rights of the governed

improve individual liberties

protect the legitimacy of the governing

restore social order

understand and explain the nature of the universe

Correct answer:

restore social order

Explanation:

Confucius lived in a particularly turbulent time in Chinese history, during the Warring States Period when rival states were engaged in centuries of constant war and competition. His writings were primarily designed to restore order to Chinese society by emphasizing filial piety, loyalty, and obedience to the state.

Example Question #7 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

According to legalism the power of a government rests in the size of its __________.

Possible Answers:

bureaucracy and infrastructure

wealth and debt

urban centers and metropole

cultural and economic sphere of influence

military and agriculture

Correct answer:

military and agriculture

Explanation:

According to legalism the power of government is derived from the productivity of its agriculture and the strength of its army. Legalism is a Chinese philosophy and theory of politics that is primarily concerned with encouraging and maintaining state authority and strong centralized government.

Example Question #8 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

The Analects contain __________.

Possible Answers:

the oldest known record of Chinese civilization

Buddhist prayers and rituals

the ideas and teachings of Confucius

the writings and teachings of Sun Tzu

the history of the Xia Dynasty

Correct answer:

the ideas and teachings of Confucius

Explanation:

The Analects is a collection of the ideas and teachings of Confucius that was written by Confucius and his students during The Hundred Schools of Thought period of Chinese history. The Analects is considered as one of the primary text that outlines Confucian philosophy.

Example Question #9 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

In an ideal Daoist state __________.

Possible Answers:

government would not exist and people would have little interaction with other communities

people would live in small, self-sufficient communal societies

the government would be highly centralized and authoritarian

the people would directly elect representatives to a governing body tasked with protecting their civil liberties

the government would be decentralized but extremely authoritarian

Correct answer:

people would live in small, self-sufficient communal societies

Explanation:

Taoism encourages people to live in accordance and harmony with nature. An ideal Daoist state would feature people living in small, self-sufficient communities.

Example Question #10 : Philosophies And Ideologies 600 Bce To 600 Ce

The Mandate of Heaven was first developed by __________.

Possible Answers:

Qin Shi Huangdi to justify the victory of the Qin in the Warring States Period

Zhou rulers to justify their conquest of the Shang

Yuan rulers to justify their presence in China

Confucius as part of his unifying philosophy of heaven and Earth

Shang rulers to ensure peace and obedience in the Chinese imperial court

Correct answer:

Zhou rulers to justify their conquest of the Shang

Explanation:

The Mandate of Heaven may be understood as the Chinese equivalent of the so-called Divine Right of Kings in Europe. Both were philosophies designed to provide legitimacy to those who were ruling by invoking the support and inherent approval of God. The Mandate of Heaven was first developed by the Zhou to justify their betrayal and conquest of the Shang. According to the Zhou, the Shang had abdicated the Mandate of Heaven through ineffective and abusive governance.

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