AP World History : Philosophies and Ideologies 1900 to Present

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

During the Cold War, the Soviet Union and the United States of America had different ideologies; the US espoused capitalism, while the USSR espoused _____________.

Possible Answers:

Liberalism

Fascism

Islamism

Communism

Warlordism

Correct answer:

Communism

Explanation:

The USSR had a Communist orientation; it was officially socialist and run by a Communist party that hoped to eventually export proletarian revolution to the entire world.

Italy under Mussolini, Germany under Hitler, and Japan under Tojo were fascist powers; they believed in an ethnocentric society run by military industrialists.

The United States and Great Britain are liberal powers; their legal systems are based on the primacy of property rights for private individuals.

Islamism is the belief that Muslim clerical authorities should have ultimate power over society.

Warlordism oftentimes exists in a failed state; for example, in China in the first half of the 20th century.

Example Question #2 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

"The parting shot" is a modern maxim derived from ________________.

Possible Answers:

the Roman tactic of throwing their javelins, or pilum, before retreating from contact with the enemy

a Parthian cavalry maneuver in which mounted bowmen would fire arrows behind them while retreating at full gallop

the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, in which John Wilkes Booth fired a shot before escaping the scene

a Mongol cavalry maneuver in which mounted bowmen would fire arrows behind them while retreating at full gallop

a British tradition in which naval ships would fire their cannons with powder, but without projectiles, upon leaving a friendly port

Correct answer:

a Parthian cavalry maneuver in which mounted bowmen would fire arrows behind them while retreating at full gallop

Explanation:

"The Parting Shot" is a corruption of the phrase, "The Parthian Shot," and refers to the ancient Parthian tactic of bowmen on horseback shooting arrows behind them as they retreat.

While the Mongols used this tactic as well, it was much later in history (over 1000 years) and the phrase "the parting shot" does not derive from Mongolian battle tactics.

The Romans did not throw their pilum before retreating, on the contrary, pilum were usually thrown upon making initial contact with the enemy; it was a way of forcing the enemy to hesitate right before hand-to-hand combat, so that the Roman soldiers had the initiative and were traveling forward while their enemies were on their heels.

 

Example Question #3 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

The rise of Fascism in Germany, Spain, and Italy can be understood primarily as a reaction to __________.

Possible Answers:

the failures of nationalism

economic instability and depression

the emergence of the United States and Japan as global powers

decolonization

the failures of communism

Correct answer:

economic instability and depression

Explanation:

The rise of Fascism took place amid the backdrop of the Great Depression. The fact that it was influential in Germany tells us that Fascism can be understood primarily as a reaction to economic instability and depression.

Example Question #4 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

In which country did Mohandas Gandhi develop his practice of nonviolent resistance against unjust laws?

Possible Answers:

China

Britain

India

South Africa

Egypt

Correct answer:

South Africa

Explanation:

Gandhi, the spiritual and public leader of India’s independence movement, developed his practice of nonviolent resistance whilst living in British South Africa. Indians in South Africa at the time were heavily prejudiced against by the state. Gandhi organized the Indian community in South Africa and campaigned peacefully for the improvement of Indian rights in South Africa.

Example Question #5 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

The Brezhnev Doctrine may be seen as a direct corollary to the __________.

Possible Answers:

Nixon Doctrine

Kennedy Doctrine

Truman Doctrine

Roosevelt Doctrine

Monroe Doctrine

Correct answer:

Truman Doctrine

Explanation:

The Brezhnev Doctrine, associated with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, states that the Soviet Union has a right to intervene in a communist country to protect communist parties from capitalist revolutions. It may be seen as a direct corollary to the foreign policy of the United States as stated in the Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine says that the United States will work to prevent the spread of communism around the world.

Example Question #6 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

The Balfour Declaration __________.

Possible Answers:

promised that Britain would support independence movements in any of its colonies that sent troops to fight in World War Two

promised that Britain would combat the spread of communism, in line with the foreign policy of the United States

offered British and American support for the Afghan militia during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

decried the treatment of Jewish people during Nazi occupation of Eastern Europe

promised British support for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine

Correct answer:

promised British support for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine

Explanation:

The Balfour Declaration was issued in 1917. It is a letter written by a prominent British politician to a wealthy and important member of the Jewish community living in Britain. The Balfour Declaration promised British support for the establishment of a Jewish state in British Mandate Palestine. It ultimately led to the creation of the state of Israel in 1948.

Example Question #7 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

Shortly after African independence from colonialism, Kwame Nkrumah argued for which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The adoption of capitalism in all African countries

Non-interference by African countries in their neighbor's politics

A federation of all African countries

None of the other answers

Gradual unity between African countries based on economic cooperation

Correct answer:

A federation of all African countries

Explanation:

Nkrumah was a proponent of African political unity and a federation comprising all African states. He was also a critic of capitalism and an advocate of socialism as a way towards African development. Nkrumah's plan for a federation also contradicted the idea of non-interference by other African countries. Lastly, it was a different African leader of the time period, Leopold Senghor of Senegal, who was a proponent of unity based on economic cooperation but who opposed the political integration of states.

Example Question #8 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

In which country did Julius Nyerere develop his ideas of Pan-Africanism and Ujamaa?

Possible Answers:

Germany

South Africa

Kenya

Tanzania

USA

Correct answer:

Tanzania

Explanation:

Nyerere was the leader of Tanzania from 1960 until his retirement in 1985.

Example Question #9 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

Julius Nyerere used the concept of Ujamaa to form social and economic policies in Tanzania that promoted which of the following?

Possible Answers:

None of these answers

Capitalism

Multi-party democracy

Ethnic or tribal identities

Socialism and cooperation

Correct answer:

Socialism and cooperation

Explanation:

Ujamaa is a Swahili word referring to "extended family" and "brotherhood". Nyerere used it as a basis for African socialist and cooperative policies. He was a critic of capitalism and multi-party democracy that he argued would exacerbate conflict between ethnic groups. His implementation of a one-party state and the use of Swahili were intended to create a national Tanzanian identity rather than ethnic ones. 

Example Question #10 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1900 To Present

These two nations famously ascribed to the policy of “nonalignment” during the Cold War?

Possible Answers:

Pakistan and Afghanistan

India and Yugoslavia

Greece and Turkey

Egypt and Turkey

Argentina and Brazil

Correct answer:

India and Yugoslavia

Explanation:

Nonalignment, in this instance, means not being a member of either the capitalist bloc of nations led by the United States nor a part of the communist bloc of nations led by the Soviet Union. India and Yugoslavia both famously ascribed to the policy of nonalignment during the Cold War.

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