AP World History : Philosophies and Ideologies 1750 to 1900

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

← Previous 1 3 4

Example Question #1 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

Enlightenment thinkers Voltaire, Hume, Wollstonecraft, and Rousseau shared a belief in __________.

Possible Answers:

the capacity of human reason to resolve problems in society

the subservience and intellectual inferiority of women 

the necessity of absolutist monarchs  

the value of emotion over reason 

the social and economic benefits of religion

Correct answer:

the capacity of human reason to resolve problems in society

Explanation:

Hume and Voltaire, in particular, were highly skeptical of the church. Wollstonecraft and Rousseau debated the role of women in society, although neither promoted their subservience. All of the thinkers above were critical of absolutist or tyrannical rule. The Romantics, not the Enlightenment thinkers, valued emotional responses to the world. One of the few things that all of the thinkers above agreed on was the power of human reason. 

Example Question #2 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

The belief that workers should control the means of production was promoted by which nineteenth-century philosopher(s)?

Possible Answers:

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Georg Hegel

Friedrich Nietzsche

Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill

Soren Kierkegaard 

Correct answer:

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

Explanation:

Mill and Bentham wrote about Utilitarianism, Nietzsche and Kierkegaard wrote about Existentialism, and Hegel wrote about Idealism. Engels and Marx wrote about Communism and promoted placing the means of production in the hands of the workers. 

Example Question #3 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

What is Nationalism?

Possible Answers:

Loyalty to a nation

Love of a nation

Identifying oneself with a nation or ethnic group

Support for a nations military

Correct answer:

Identifying oneself with a nation or ethnic group

Explanation:

While these all became associated with nationalism, the true definition of nationalism is the basic statement of identifying with a nation or group of people. This association over time led to the fanatical devotion and love of this nation or group that would spin Europe out of control towards the First World War.

Example Question #4 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

What political philosophy was Robert Owen the founder of?

Possible Answers:

Mercantilism 

Communism

Republicanism

Socialism

Correct answer:

Socialism

Explanation:

Socialism is most often attributed to Robert Owen. He was a political and social philosopher of the 18th and 19th centuries. He wanted to see society turned into a utopia using a specific formula that later became known as socialism.

Example Question #5 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

What was the main idea behind the philosophy of socialism? 

Possible Answers:

Greater income equality

Greater government regulation

Eradication of poverty

Equality of all people

Correct answer:

Equality of all people

Explanation:

At this time in history people were not treated equally before the law, in the workplace, or in society as a whole. People were treated differently based on their economic status, gender, race, and ethnicity. Socialism called for the immediate end to this practice and the start of policy that made everyone equal.

Example Question #6 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

Who is credited with creating the philosophical basis for Communism?

Possible Answers:

Thomas More and Eduard Bernstein

Jean Jacques Rousseau

Vladimir Lenin

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 

Correct answer:

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels 

Explanation:

Marx and Engels were German social philosophers who advocated an economic and social theory known as Marxism. Political systems based on Marxism have been called  communist due to their emphasis on community improvement and common good. It bears noting, however, that notable communist governments, like the Soviet government, bear little resemblance to the theories and systems advocated by Marx and Engels.

Example Question #7 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

Which of the following is not a famous book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels?

Possible Answers:

Reform or Revolution

Das Kapital

Value, Price and Profit

The Communist Manifesto

Correct answer:

Reform or Revolution

Explanation:

The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital are the most famous works of Marx and Engels by far. They did, however, write many more books over the years including Value, Price, and Profit, which was critical of the use of mass labor by the wealthy for their gain. Reform or Revolution was written by Rosa Luxembourg, a follower of Marx and Engels.

Example Question #8 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

According to Marxism, what group of people was supposed to be the ruling class?

Possible Answers:

The military

The educated

The masses

A new royalty

Correct answer:

The masses

Explanation:

Marx and Engels advocated the masses or Proletariat as the group that should rule the nation. They felt that to put power into the hands of a few would invite the few to abuse their power. They said the only one capable of ruling the people was the people themselves.

Example Question #9 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

What was the Iron Law of Wages?

Possible Answers:

Wages would decrease due to immigrant influxes 

Wages would only increase as a society became more educated

Wages would continue to increase over time

Wages would trend downward toward the minimum needed to sustain a workers life

Correct answer:

Wages would trend downward toward the minimum needed to sustain a workers life

Explanation:

The Iron Law of Wages was a philosophy posited by LaSalle and Ricardo that said wages would always decrease toward the minimum required by the workers. They said that only when wages dipped below that minimum and workers reacted against it would they temporarily jump up, only then to begin to decrease again.

Example Question #10 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

What is Utilitarianism? 

Possible Answers:

The moral philosophy that the most ethical action is the one that is most rational

The moral philosophy that people needed to share in prosperity so all could prosper

The moral philosophy that goods should only be made that can be of benefit to society

The moral philosophy that the most ethical action is the one that provides the most good to the highest number of people

Correct answer:

The moral philosophy that the most ethical action is the one that provides the most good to the highest number of people

Explanation:

Utilitarianism was a philosophy that concerned the morals and ethics of society. It said that the most ethical action was the one that contributed the most good to the most people. This philosophy sought to change morals and ethics to focus of the benefit of actions to society.

← Previous 1 3 4
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors

Incompatible Browser

Please upgrade or download one of the following browsers to use Instant Tutoring: