AP World History : Philosophies and Ideologies 1450 to 1750

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

What is the Political theory that states that the right of ruling comes from God and not the consent of the governed?

Possible Answers:

Social Contract

Mandate of Heaven

Divine Right of Kings

Feudalism

Magna Carta

Correct answer:

Divine Right of Kings

Explanation:

The Divine Right of Kings was used a justification of Monarchy for centuries in Europe after the widespread acceptance of Christianity.

Example Question #1 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

In 18th century Japan, increased peace and prosperity, as well as growing Western influence, ________________.

Possible Answers:

caused an appreciation for Christianity amongst all segments of society

caused a revival for traditional Japanese culture, exemplified by increased demand for medieval style armor

caused the Japanese people to rise up against their feudal lords and demand a more democratic government

caused the emperor's political power to grow because of his capable dealing with the outsiders

caused a huge amount of discontent amongst the samurai class who had been trained for war since birth; many became mercenaries, fighting in wars in other parts of Asia

Correct answer:

caused a revival for traditional Japanese culture, exemplified by increased demand for medieval style armor

Explanation:

Peace, prosperity, and growing Western influence caused the samurai class, increasingly tasked with bureaucracy rather than war fighting, to face an existential crisis; one of the ways samurai dealt with the changing world was by reaching into the past for inspiration.

Although much of the samurai class became disillusioned with life in the Shogunate, there was no tradition of voyaging outside of Japan to ply their martial trade on the Asian mainland.

Many segments of 18th century Japanese society regarded Christianity as threatening to Japanese social mores and political structures.

During the Shogunate, the emperor of Japan lacked political power; he lived a hermitic life sealed away from all but lofty court rituals by the Shogun.

In 18th century Japan there was no large-scale movement for a national, democratic government.

Example Question #2 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

Which of the following subjects was not included in the standard Renaissance educational program known as the “studia humanitatis?”

Possible Answers:

Grammar 

Science 

Rhetoric 

Poetry 

History and politics 

Correct answer:

Science 

Explanation:

The humanist artists and scholars of the Renaissance era put a great deal of emphasis and importance upon education. Perhaps the best-known and most influential of these groundbreaking scholars were Francisco Petrarch (aka “the father of humanism”), Dante Alighieri (the author of “The Divine Comedy”), and Giovanni Boccaccio (the author of the “Decameron”). Together with the other humanist scholars of their age, these men saw education as the proper means through which young men became well-rounded, nobly accomplished, and civically responsible members of society. The educational traditions of the medieval era were seen as far too focused on religious dogma, often at the expense of rational objectivity. Out of these shared values evolved the “studia humantiatis,” or the educational blueprint used by most humanist scholars to teach their students. This “studia” has often been described as the first liberal arts program, because it emphasized the disciplined and in-depth study of such subjects as history and politics, rhetoric, grammar, poetry, ethics, philosophy, and poetry. It was believed that through the study of such topics, students would gain both wisdom and the eloquence to properly express such wisdom, so that they might, in the future, pass these teachings down to the next generation. Many of the lessons on these topics derived from re-discovered classical – especially ancient Greek and Roman – manuscripts.

Example Question #4 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

Which of the following was not one of the key differences between Renaissance scholarship and past Western European programs of study?

Possible Answers:

Domination by secular individuals

A preference for collation and/or summarizing

More discoveries of classical manuscripts

An expanded variety of subjects

A lessened focus on religious matters

Correct answer:

A preference for collation and/or summarizing

Explanation:

Contrary to popular belief, the revival of and renewed appreciation for classical ideology was not a phenomenon that occurred only during the Renaissance. In fact, many eras throughout Western European history were witness to this craze for classicalism, including the preceding days of the ninth, twelfth, and fourteenth centuries, from Paris to Chartres and beyond. However, the renewed pursuit of classical sources and the revival of interest in the study of antiquity during the Renaissance was indeed quite unique, for a variety of interdependent reasons. From the beginning, Renaissance scholars decided to abandon the medieval method of study, which relied upon the collation, comparison, and summarizing of sources, in favor of much in-depth explorations. In keeping with this new approach, humanist students also focused less on religious matters, shunning the teachings of past theologians in favor of classical interpretations (such as those of Plato and Ptolemy) and choosing to study a wide variety of subjects. In order to facilitate such an aggressive educational campaign, humanists began in earnest to seek out undiscovered or under-utilized caches of classical manuscripts; their recovery efforts were much more successful than those of past generations. Renaissance scholarship was also notably dominated by secular individuals, rather than religious figures, which in turn helped to cultivate a more open, expansive, and even questioning educational culture. These humanistic learners often quite openly challenged traditional teachings, especially those of the Church and medieval theologians, subjecting such writings to strict standards of scholarship.

Example Question #5 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

Which of the following schools of thought came to prominence during the Renaissance?

Possible Answers:

Humanism

Stoicism

Mysticism 

Pragmatism

Existentialism 

Correct answer:

Humanism

Explanation:

Humanism was the defining school of thought of the Renaissance. This school of thought's emphasis on the individual and the power of people helps to explain the other artistic and academic accomplishments of the era. None of the other movements listed deal with the mentality of Renaissance Europe. Existentialism was developed in the 19th and 20th centuries. Pragmatism, stoicism, and mysticism are all ancient philosophies developed well before humanism.

Example Question #6 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

According to Thomas Hobbes, why is absolute monarchy the best possible system of government?

Possible Answers:

Kings are best suited by heritage to govern; rulers beget more rulers

Humans are too inherently selfish and violent to be effectively controlled by another method

Only an absolute monarch can ensure adequate protection from warfare and civil strife for his/her people

Monarchy is too firmly established to ever be easily abolished

Political stability and economic success is most swiftly and best achieved through coercive obedience

Correct answer:

Humans are too inherently selfish and violent to be effectively controlled by another method

Explanation:

Thomas Hobbes was one of the seventeenth century’s most influential political philosophers and a devoted advocate of the Scientific Revolution. Hobbes had a quite negative (even condemnatory) view of human nature, which leaps off the pages of his most famous work, Leviathan. In Leviathan, Hobbes, lays out his case for absolute monarchy, the best possible governmental system – or so Hobbes alleged. According to him, humans are by nature inherently selfish, destructively chaotic, and incurably violent creatures (more animalistic than humanistic). This human condition couldn’t be cured or overcome and so, without adequate control and supervision, humans quickly descend into outright bloody confrontation. The best possible cure for this affliction? An absolute monarch, whose strict control, iron grip on every piece of economic and social machinery, and complete monopoly on the use of force could compel obedience, security, and order amongst people. Any other form of government, Hobbes warned, wouldn’t be strong enough to keep the peace and before too long, violence and chaos would again break out. The best ruler, in Hobbes’ view, was the strongest, most ruthless, most absolute, one who could command, and claim, unquestioning obedience.

Example Question #7 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

According to seventeenth century political philosopher John Locke, what is most essential, basic purpose of any proper government?

Possible Answers:

The administration and allotment of economic resources

To safeguard human liberties

The protection of private property

The defense of national boundaries against invasion and incursion

None of these

Correct answer:

The protection of private property

Explanation:

Seventeenth century political philosopher John Locke disagreed with his contemporary Thomas Hobbes in basically every way possible. While Hobbes was a staunch defender of absolute monarchy, Locke vehemently championed a system of limited government. According to Locke, any proper government (aka a limited one) existed for one fundamental purpose: the protection of private property. Humans, in Locke’s view, were innately free, rational, and decent individuals who only needed government to play a mediatory role in their lives. In order to ensure optimal living conditions, therefore, humans would enter into a consensual social contract, in which they handed over a bit of their natural freedoms to a leader who in turn promised to protect their belongings, mediate disputes, and otherwise safeguard their lives. Locke took his ideas one step further – in a truly revolutionary claim, he asserted that just governments were predicated on trust between the people and their leader. If this trust was violated (perhaps by the leader’s failure to protect property or his attempt to become a tyrant), the people were fully justified – and even morally obligated – to rise up in rebellion and overthrow their current ruler. This last idea was truly shocking and it would reverberate through history more dramatically and influentially than any other of Locke’s many brilliant ideas.

Example Question #8 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

Select the philosopher/scientist who engaged in the Scientific Revolution’s most influential and thorough exploration of the intersections between religion and scientific thought.

Possible Answers:

John Locke

Galileo Galilei

Rene Descartes

Blaise Pascal

Francis Bacon

Correct answer:

Blaise Pascal

Explanation:

Blaise Pascal was a seventeenth century French scientist, mathematician, and philosopher whose commitment to the rigors and principles of the Scientific Revolution was unwavering. A wealthy man, Pascal voluntarily rid himself of all his luxurious possessions and properties in order to pursue an unencumbered life pursuing scientific research and rational thought. Inspired by the current climate of clashes between religious thinkers and proponents of science, Pascal decided to embark on an ambitious project: he would attempt to reconcile faith and science and prove that their coexistence was possible. While Pascal never fully achieved this goal, his work Pensees (French for “Thoughts”) is truly a marvel of logical reasoning. Pascal singled out both religious zealots and avowed atheists, whom he assailed as being equally mentally closed off to the possibility that either side was correct. Instead, Pascal urged, any truly rational individual, should fall somewhere in the middle of the spectrum, embracing the possibility of a deity while also acknowledging the unknowability of the existence of a divine being. He was especially critical of scientists, whom he believed were far too optimistic and even deluded by their new knowledge. His final verdict was that religion seems to be a mentally positive influence on humanity and so should therefore be respected and protected.

Example Question #9 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

The philosophy of Deism first emerged during _______________.

Possible Answers:

the English Civil War

the Catholic Counter Reformation

the Scientific Revolution

the Thirty Years’ War

the Protestant Reformation

Correct answer:

the Scientific Revolution

Explanation:

The philosophy of Deism is rested in the belief in a “watchmaker God.” That is to say, a God that created the universe with a set of unbreakable natural laws and then sat back and no longer interfered in day-to-day affairs. It was widely embraced by enlightenment thinkers like Thomas Jefferson. It first emerged during the Scientific Revolution in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

Example Question #3 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1450 To 1750

The concept of Divine Right of Kings is most closely associated with which of these European monarchs?

Possible Answers:

King Charles II

Queen Catherine I

King Louis XIV

King Henry VIII

King Charles V

Correct answer:

King Louis XIV

Explanation:

The concept of Divine Right of Kings is most closely associated with the Sun King, Louis XIV. Louis XIV is famous for his declaration “I am the state!” The Divine Right of Kings was a prevailing political philosophy in Europe during much of the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries. It essentially states that the king is not answerable to parliament, the people, or the aristocracy. Instead the king draws his legitimacy from God.

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