AP World History : Labor Systems and Economic Systems 1450 to 1750

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

In response to the greater demand for cheap agricultural labor brought on by European colonization of the New World, large numbers of slaves were imported from which of the following regions?

Possible Answers:

North Africa

Sub Saharan West Africa

China

India

Sub Saharan East Africa

Correct answer:

Sub Saharan West Africa

Explanation:

During the 17th, 18th, and early 19th centuries, West Africa was the primary region from which Europeans acquired the large numbers of slaves used for agricultural labor throughout the Western Hemisphere. Though some slaves were also acquired from East Africa, far fewer were sent to the New World.

Example Question #2 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

Which of the following statements about slavery in the Renaissance is true?

Possible Answers:

None of these

The mass casualties caused by the Black Death increased the demand for slave labor

The most common type of slavery was plantation slavery

Most Italian city-states legally mandated ethical treatment of slaves by their owners

Slavery was a new economic and cultural development native to the Renaissance era

Correct answer:

The mass casualties caused by the Black Death increased the demand for slave labor

Explanation:

Sadly, the Renaissance era’s humanistic philosophy did not extend to the institution of slavery. Europe had a long slave-holding tradition, stretching back to the mass slave markets run by Viking warriors to the ancient Roman and Greek practices of selling prisoners of war. Enslaved individuals came from many ethnic groups across Europe, Asia, and Africa – including Greeks, Russians, Persians, Tatars, Irish, Africans, and Serbs. This practice continued unabated through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, especially in cases of warfare, where it was established practice for the victorious army to seize captives from the both military and civilian populations to sell in various slave markets. The wholesale devastation of the Black Death heightened the popularity of slavery among Europeans even further, as the demand for laborers rose in the wake of all the plague’s mass casualties. The most common form of slavery was domestically based, in which slaves lived, worked, and served in a household, performing various duties such as cooking, cleaning, farming, and caring for livestock. The Middle Ages and the Renaissance saw the development of plantation style slavery, in which groups of slaves were used in tandem to grow sugarcane on the various Mediterranean islands. In most cultures, including the birthplace of the Renaissance itself, slaves had no legal standing or protection under the law whatsoever; their owners were free to treat their slaves however they pleased, largely without fear of reprisal from any government figures or religious institutions.

Example Question #3 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the countries and regions in Central and Eastern Europe were less economically advanced and less prosperous than their Western European counterparts. Which of the following is NOT one of the main reasons for this inequity?

Possible Answers:

Infrequent and inefficient overseas trade

No overseas territorial holdings

Fewer serfs to work the land

Frequent and disruptive local military conflicts

An economic system based mostly on agriculture

Correct answer:

Fewer serfs to work the land

Explanation:

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Central and Eastern Europe was not nearly as economically prosperous or as advanced as Western Europe. This unfortunate situation was due to a combination of several factors. First of all, the region’s economic system was overwhelmingly based on agriculture; manufacturing, artisanship, and other rising capitalist endeavors hadn’t taken hold here. While Western Europe was seeing rapid urban growth and expansion, Central and Eastern Europe had very few cities. In fact, most of the land in the region was made up of large estates, with an even larger population of serfs who spent their entire lives working the land. This sort of economic setup didn’t allow for any empire building, so while Spain, England, and France were seizing land in the New World, Central and Eastern European leaders couldn’t even consider such a possibility. As for overseas trade, this region hardly engaged in the practice either, which further impoverished and isolated the area. An additional history of local military disputes, conflicts, and disregard for authority prevented any notable measures of economic reform and/or stability from taking hold.

Example Question #4 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

The Encomienda System was established by __________.

Possible Answers:

Spain in Latin America and the Caribbean

Portugal in Ceylon and the Indian coast

Portugal in Brazil and the African coast

Spain in the Pacific Islands and southeast Asia

Spain in the Iberian peninsula

Correct answer:

Spain in Latin America and the Caribbean

Explanation:

The Encomienda System was established by Spanish colonists in Latin America and the Caribbean. It was an economic and political system that allowed for the effective enslavement of the native population.

Example Question #5 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

The system of indentured labor was most common in __________.

Possible Answers:

plantations in South America

mines in South America

mines in North America

plantations in North America

plantations in the Caribbean

Correct answer:

plantations in North America

Explanation:

Indentured labor, or indentured servitude, was most common in plantations in North America. Indentured servitude was a common way for poor Europeans to emigrate to the Americas. In exchange for an agreed upon period of labor, often three to seven years, a wealthy plantation owner would fund the passage of the worker to the New World. After working for the wealthy plantation owner for a number of years the worker would be able to set up a free life for himself in the Americas.

 

Example Question #6 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

The Encomienda System was often vehemently opposed by __________ in the Spanish Empire.

Possible Answers:

merchants and investors

soldiers and sailors

foreign mercenaries

the monarchy and the aristocracy

Christian missionaries

Correct answer:

Christian missionaries

Explanation:

The Encomienda System was often vehemently opposed by Christian missionaries in the Spanish colonial empire who were appalled by the excesses and abuses of Spanish rule. Dominican and Franciscan friars were occasionally outspoken in their criticism of the realities of the Encomienda System.

Example Question #7 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

Slaves that arrived in the Caribbean __________.

Possible Answers:

generally worked on cotton plantations and were treated better than on mainland America

generally worked in silver mines and were treated better than on mainland America

generally worked on sugar plantations and were treated better than on mainland America

generally worked on sugar plantations and were treated worse than on mainland America

generally worked on cotton plantations and were treated worse than on mainland America

Correct answer:

generally worked on sugar plantations and were treated worse than on mainland America

Explanation:

The conditions of slaves in the Caribbean were probably worse than they were anywhere else in the world, with the possible exception of slaves in Portuguese Brazil. Slaves in the Caribbean worked on extremely labor-intensive sugar plantations and were considered as expendable labor due to the ready and continuous supply of new slaves arriving from Africa.

Example Question #8 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

Mercantilism was the prevailing economic theory in Europe during __________.

Possible Answers:

the first era of European colonialism

the twentieth century

the Enlightenment era

the age of European imperialism

the era of Feudalism

Correct answer:

the first era of European colonialism

Explanation:

Mercantilism was the prevailing economic theory in Europe during the first few centuries of European colonialism, before it was replaced in the eighteenth century by free market capitalism. Mercantilism involves strict government control over the economy and proposes that the government regulate large-scale economic ventures for the purposes of enhancing state power. It also involves the establishment of colonies for the purpose of extracting raw resources (particularly gold and silver), which can be used to directly enrich the metropole. Mercantilism, by its very nature, is competitive and led to many wars between competing European powers.

Example Question #9 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

Which of these most accurately describes the Repartimiento System?

Possible Answers:

A system in which the native population was enslaved and forced to work on plantations year-round in the Portuguese colonial empire

None of these answers accurately describes the Repartimiento System

A system in which the native population was enslaved and forced to work on plantations year-round in the Spanish colonial empire

A system in which the native population was forced to work, for several months of the year, in slave-like conditions in the Spanish colonial empire

A system in which the native population was forced to work, for several months of the year, in slave-like conditions in the Portuguese colonial empire

Correct answer:

A system in which the native population was forced to work, for several months of the year, in slave-like conditions in the Spanish colonial empire

Explanation:

The Repartimiento System was employed in many parts of Spanish colonial America after the abuses of the Encomienda System had been brought to light. The Repartimiento System differed in that the natives were no longer enslaved, but instead were forced to work for several months of the year in slave-like conditions.

Example Question #10 : Labor Systems And Economic Systems 1450 To 1750

Which of these best describes the nature of Shoguns and Daimyos in Japanese feudal society?

Possible Answers:

Shoguns were soldiers in the emperor’s army; Daimyos were independent powerful military rulers

Daimyos were soldiers in the emperor’s army; Shoguns were independent powerful military rulers

Daimyos were members of the government bureaucracy; Shoguns were hereditary landowners

Daimyos were powerful military rulers; Shoguns were hereditary landowners

Shoguns were powerful military rulers; Daimyos were hereditary landowners

Correct answer:

Shoguns were powerful military rulers; Daimyos were hereditary landowners

Explanation:

Shoguns and Daimyos were the two ruling groups in Japanese feudal society. Shoguns were powerful military rulers, best understood as warrior-kings. Daimyos were wealthy, hereditary landowners. At various times in Japanese history these two groups worked together, fought against one another and fought amongst themselves for control of Japanese society.

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