AP US History : Work, Exchange, and Technology 1801–1848

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Work, Exchange, And Technology 1801–1848

What problem arose as a result of the railroads that were built in the mid-19th Century?

Possible Answers:

Railroads were privately owned, and therefore, did not all use the same gauge tracks.

Railroads allowed large quantities of products to be moved quickly from one place to another.

Railroads allowed people to travel much greater distances, which stimulated the Westward Expansion movement.

Shipping products by railroads was cheaper than shipping by boat, which seriously harmed America's Navy.

The railroads resulted in the disruption of mail service to many rural areas.

Correct answer:

Railroads were privately owned, and therefore, did not all use the same gauge tracks.

Explanation:

The original railroads in the US were created in the 1830s and most were privately owned. Each owner was responsible for building the tracks, which resulted in the distance between the rails (or gauge) being set at whatever the owner felt was best. This meant that, even though the infrastructure was available, trains could not move from one rail line to another unless they used exactly the same gauge tracks. Although many railroad owners voluntarily began using the same gauge, it wasn't until May 31, 1886 that all railroads in the United States began using a standardized gauge.

Example Question #2 : Work, Exchange, And Technology 1801–1848

The Industrial Age brought many changes to American life. The changes were so rapid and widespread that many church leaders became deeply concerned about the effects of industrialization on society and their congregations. During the second half of the Nineteenth Century, the Second Great Awakening began as Protestant ministers began to preach for the improvement of the condition of industrial society through charity and justice. This movement, known as the Social Gospel, was led by Washington Gladden and Lyman Abbott. Their goal was to join salvation to good works. These ministers wanted people to put aside all earthly belongings and help those in need. They taught that the purpose of wealth was to help the less fortunate, and the principles of a just society were egalitarian in nature.   

The Social Gospel Movement directly influenced the creation of what group in the United States?

Possible Answers:

Social Democracy

the NAACP

the Red Cross

the Salvation Army

the Social Mission Society

Correct answer:

the NAACP

Explanation:

Many Protestant ministers and authors began preaching the Social Gospel to bring Christian ideas to the workplace. They preached against child labor and were in favor of the temperance movement, Progressivism, abolitionism, and civil service reform. Home Mission Societies were formed to send interdenominational preachers to the South and Western frontier to start new churches and address social problems. In the United States, Washington Gladden, well known for his preaching of the Social Gospel, was directly instrumental in forming the NAACP as part of the Social Gospel’s dedication to the abolitionist movement and civil rights for all Americans. Social Democracy describes a socialist government formed by democratic means and is not related to the Social Gospel. The Social Mission Society is a nonexistent organization. The Red Cross and The Salvation Army, while having at their core a concern for society and to help those in need, were not related to the Social Gospel.

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