AP US History : Work, Exchange, and Technology 1608–1754

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Work, Exchange, And Technology 1608–1754

During colonization, one result of large amounts of arable land and few landowners was that __________.

Possible Answers:

colonist's relationships with Native Americans were very strained.

profits from produce increased.

settlers continued moving westward to find suitable land for farming.

land owners often relied on indentured servants to fulfill their labor requirements.

agricultural workers formed a union to advocate for their employment rights.

Correct answer:

land owners often relied on indentured servants to fulfill their labor requirements.

Explanation:

Indentured servitude was common in the United States during the Colonial Period and continued into the 19th Century. Poor people in Europe trying to escape various forms of discrimination, or just eager for a fresh start in the New World, would sell their services to a master for a period of time, often 7 years. The master would pay for their trip to America as well as room and board during their period of service. The masters were usually wealthy landowners who required a great deal of cheap labor in order to cultivate their land. 

 

Example Question #2 : Work, Exchange, And Technology 1608–1754

The Transatlantic Triangular Trade consisted of three stages. The first stage began in British ports with ships carrying cloth, guns, ironware and drink made in Britain to use in trading for slaves on the West African coast. The second stage was in Africa. There African slave dealers kidnapped people from villages, often up to 100 miles inland, or purchased individuals from African chiefs. These kidnapped and purchased individuals were marched to the West African coast to be traded to the European traders. The European captains would take up to 4 months to fill their ships with individuals as they sailed along the West African coast looking for the fittest and most inexpensive slaves. When the ships were full to capacity, the final stage or the Middle Passage began.  The Middle Passage carried slaves across the Atlantic Ocean to the West Indies. The enslaved Africans were sold in the West Indies. The money earned from the sale of the slaves was used to buy sugar, coffee, tobacco and other products that would be carried back to Great Britain. The Transatlantic Triangular Trade was an unsavory yet vital element of the trade economy of the time.

The Transatlantic Triangular Trade was vital part of British trade because of which of the following two factors?

Possible Answers:

The Stamp Act and China Trade

The Plantation System and the Free Market System

The Quartering Act and Mercantilism

The Navigation Acts and Mercantilism

The Sugar Act and Capitalism

Correct answer:

The Navigation Acts and Mercantilism

Explanation:

The Transatlantic Triangular trade was crucial to mercantilism in Great Britain. The main purpose of the colonies was to enrich Great Britain with trade in diverse goods from the abundance of the colonies in exchange for the goods needed in the colonies. Money did not change hands in these transactions. Instead the goods traded came from the colonies as a result of the sale of slaves to plantation owners in need of inexpensive labor. This provided Great Britain with the means to obtain goods without paying the colonies for the products. Additionally, the process could be repeated.  The Navigation Acts declared that all colonial exports would be transported in British ships and imports would pass through British ports. This was caused by the salutary neglect of Britain but became a vital necessary during the French and Indian War. Therefore, Great Britain controlled the transactions of goods and the ports to be used in the trading. The Transatlantic Triangular Trade and mercantilism provided a favorable balance of trade for Great Britain. Gold and silver would not leave Britain to purchase the raw materials, manufactured goods and food the country needed. The slave trade would "pay for" these items. The balance was in favor of Great Britain as the colonies bought more than they sent out.

Example Question #3 : Work, Exchange, And Technology 1608–1754

"For having protected, favored, and emboldened the Indians against his Majesty’s loyal subjects, never contriving, requiring, or appointing any due or proper means of satisfaction for their many invasions, robberies, and murders committed upon us."

- Declaration of Nathaniel Bacon, leader of a rebellion of former indentured servants against Governor William Berkeley, 1676

"I have lived 34 years amongst you, as uncorrupt and dilligent as ever Governor was, Bacon is a man of two years amongst you, his person and qualities unknown to most of you, and to all men else, by any virtuous action that ever I heard of...I will take Council of wiser men then my self, but Mr. Bacon hath none about him, but the lowest of the people."

- Governor Williams Berkeley, in response to Bacon's Rebellion, 1676

Which of these major developments was caused in part by conflicts between former indentured servants and the landed elites?

Possible Answers:

The rise in the regulation of trade among the colonies

A general movement towards the support of Republicanism

Uprisings by confederations of Native Americans against the landed elites

An increase in the importation of slaves from Africa to act as laborers

An increasing number of disgruntled former indentured servants turning to a life of piracy to attain wealth

Correct answer:

An increase in the importation of slaves from Africa to act as laborers

Explanation:

Because of frustrations over the shortages of indentured servants and the challenges of accommodating newly independent freedmen, the Chesapeake colonies eventually turned to slave labor as a more easily managed source of forced labor.

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