AP US History : Global Participation 1901–1945

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Global Participation 1901–1945

Which country was not a founding member of the League of Nations?

Possible Answers:

Republic of China

United States

Canada

France

Empire of Japan

Correct answer:

United States

Explanation:

Although Woodrow Wilson was instrumental in proposing the League of Nations following World War I, the US Senate never ratified the treaty. This was a direct result of Wilson's refusal to compromise with the Republican Senate Majority Leader, Henry Cabot Lodge.

Example Question #2 : Global Participation 1901–1945

The following is an excerpt from the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, delivered in 1905:

...In asserting the Monroe Doctrine, in taking such steps as we have taken in regard to Cuba, Venezuela, and Panama, and in endeavoring to circumscribe the theater of war in the Far East, and to secure the open door in China, we have acted in our own interest as well as in the interest of humanity at large... Ordinarily it is very much wiser and more useful for us to concern ourselves with striving for our own moral and material betterment here at home than to concern ourselves with trying to better the condition of things in other nations... Nevertheless there are occasional crimes committed on so vast a scale and of such peculiar horror as to make us doubt whether it is not our manifest duty to endeavor at least to show our disapproval of the deed and our sympathy with those who have suffered by it."

When Roosevelt refers to "the theater of war in the Far East," what conflict is he most likely discussing?

Possible Answers:

The Cultural Revolution led by Mao Zedong

The Philippine Revolution

The Japanese occupation of China

The Russo-Japanese War

Correct answer:

The Russo-Japanese War

Explanation:

In 1905, the same year of the Roosevelt Corollary, President Roosevelt offered to broker a peace between Japan and Russia, who were battling over territory in Manchuria. The Treaty of Portsmouth ended the Russo-Japanese war and won Roosevelt the Nobel Peace Prize.

Of the other options, only the Philippine Revolution occurred close to Roosevelt's presidency, but by 1905 the Philippines was no longer a theater of war, but a U.S. protectorate.

Example Question #3 : Global Participation 1901–1945

“History and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of republican government.... Excessive partiality for one foreign nation and excessive dislike of another cause those whom they actuate to see danger only on one side and serve to veil and even second the arts of influence on the other. . . . The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations to have with them as little political connection as possible. So far as we have already formed engagements, let them be fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies, the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns.”

- George Washington, Farewell Address, 1796

Most historians would argue that the recommendations of Washington’s address ceased to have a significant influence on United States foreign policy as a result of ___________________.

Possible Answers:

United States involvement in the World War II

The refusal of the United States to join the League of Nations in 1919 

Westward expansion in the 19th century

Support for Cuban revolutionaries in the Spanish-American War

The Monroe Doctrine

Correct answer:

United States involvement in the World War II

Explanation:

Until World War II, United States foreign policy was largely dominated by isolationism and a resistance to forming long-term alliances with other global powers. After the Second World War, the United States emerged as a major global power and employed a foreign policy that favored intervention in foreign affairs and conflicts much more frequently.

Example Question #4 : Global Participation 1901–1945

The League of Nations came into being after the end of World War I as a means to prevent future wars and to bring stability to a world in turmoil as a result of the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. World leaders, including American President Woodrow Wilson, recognized that to avoid war it would be necessary to create an international organization to maintain world peace and mediate disputes that may arise between nations. The League of Nations was opposed in the United States by many government leaders.  America was experiencing a return to isolationism at this time and Article 10 became the stumbling block for approval of the League of Nations in America. The most well-known opponent was Henry Cabot Lodge. Article 10 of the League of Nations reads as follows:

 “The Members of the League undertake to respect and preserve as against external aggression the territorial integrity and existing political independence of all Members of the League. In case of any such aggression or in case of any threat or danger of such aggression the Council shall advise upon the means by which this obligation shall be fulfilled.”

The Treaty of Versailles (June 1919), The League of Nations, Article 10.

What were the objections to the League of Nations by American leaders such as Henry Cabot Lodge?

Possible Answers:

It limited the power of the American government to determine its own affairs and was a form of an entangling alliance

It limited the Allied powers from collecting war debts from Germany

It broadly allowed any League member country to declare war and expect aid from other League members in fighting its war

It allowed the United States to freely trade with Germany

It would lead to increased United States involvement in the German economy

Correct answer:

It limited the power of the American government to determine its own affairs and was a form of an entangling alliance

Explanation:

Henry Cabot Lodge and many other government and political leaders rejected the League of Nations because they felt it would result in the United States becoming involved in world affairs during unsettled and dangerous times with or without any threat to United States interests. They viewed it as a violation of the ideas of George Washington against entangling alliances. It was feared that the United States could be drawn into the governing and economic activities of world nations and possibly another war. The League of Nations did not have a military force and it had no means to organize one from its member nations. Britain and France were financially and militarily unable to provide assistance and Germany was banned from membership as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. Russia was banned from membership due to the development of communism in the country in 1917. Thus, there were fears that America would be the only nation to take action if needed.

Example Question #5 : Global Participation 1901–1945

The following is an excerpt from the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, delivered in 1905:

...In asserting the Monroe Doctrine, in taking such steps as we have taken in regard to Cuba, Venezuela, and Panama, and in endeavoring to circumscribe the theater of war in the Far East, and to secure the open door in China, we have acted in our own interest as well as in the interest of humanity at large... Ordinarily it is very much wiser and more useful for us to concern ourselves with striving for our own moral and material betterment here at home than to concern ourselves with trying to better the condition of things in other nations... Nevertheless there are occasional crimes committed on so vast a scale and of such peculiar horror as to make us doubt whether it is not our manifest duty to endeavor at least to show our disapproval of the deed and our sympathy with those who have suffered by it."

When mentioning "occasional crimes on so vast a scale,"  to what incident is Roosevelt most likely referring?

Possible Answers:

the extinction of the American buffalo

the sinking of the USS Maine in 1898

treatment of migrant workers in urban factories

a brutal battle in the Russo-Japanese War

Correct answer:

the sinking of the USS Maine in 1898

Explanation:

Although the sinking of the Maine happened before Roosevelt took office, the subsequent U.S. invasion of Cuba was the beginning of American involvement in Latin America, a policy that the Roosevelt Corollary attempts to justify.

The other answers all reflect events that occurred during or just before Roosevelt's presidency, but are not the best selections because they are either unrelated to foreign policy, or unrelated to Latin America.

Example Question #6 : Global Participation 1901–1945

The following is an excerpt from the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, delivered in 1905:

"...In asserting the Monroe Doctrine, in taking such steps as we have taken in regard to Cuba, Venezuela, and Panama, and in endeavoring to circumscribe the theater of war in the Far East, and to secure the open door in China, we have acted in our own interest as well as in the interest of humanity at large... Ordinarily it is very much wiser and more useful for us to concern ourselves with striving for our own moral and material betterment here at home than to concern ourselves with trying to better the condition of things in other nations... Nevertheless there are occasional crimes committed on so vast a scale and of such peculiar horror as to make us doubt whether it is not our manifest duty to endeavor at least to show our disapproval of the deed and our sympathy with those who have suffered by it."

Which of the following best describes the relationship between the Roosevelt Corollary and the Good Neighbor policy, implemented by Franklin Roosevelt in 1933?

Possible Answers:

The Good Neighbor policy reaffirmed the U.S. commitment to providing foreign aid to Latin American nations.

The two policies are unrelated. The Roosevelt Corollary applied only to Latin America, while the Good Neighbor policy dealt with Europe.

The Good Neighbor policy rejected the precedent of armed intervention in Latin America that began under the Roosevelt Corollary.

The Good Neighbor policy promised additional U.S. intervention in Latin America.

Correct answer:

The Good Neighbor policy rejected the precedent of armed intervention in Latin America that began under the Roosevelt Corollary.

Explanation:

After many US occupations of Latin American countries in the period 1901-1933, Franklin Roosevelt officially reversed the course of American foreign policy there, withdrawing troops from Haiti and Nicaragua and signing a treaty to annul the Platt Amendment over Cuba.

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