AP US History : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP US History

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print; Artist = Billy Ireland, 1912.  LOC Reproduction Number:  LC-USZ62-34356 (b&w film copy neg.).  No known restrictions on publication.

Tr   wilson political cartoon


              

In the 1912 Presidential election, which philosophical difference does this cartoon represent between Theodore Roosevelt of the Progressive Party and Woodrow Wilson of the Democratic Party?

Possible Answers:

Wilson supported robust foreign trade policies, while Roosevelt advocated for an isolationist approach.

Woodrow Wilson believed that all large corporations should be abolished while Roosevelt believed that corporations should be nationalized.

Roosevelt believed in strict regulation of all corporations, while Wilson believed only large corporations should be regulated.

Theodore Roosevelt believed in a strong federal government while Woodrow Wilson believed in individual rights.

Theodore Roosevelt was well-known for catering to corrupt businesses while Woodrow Wilson was renowned for his honesty.

Correct answer:

Theodore Roosevelt believed in a strong federal government while Woodrow Wilson believed in individual rights.

Explanation:

After failing to win the Republican nomination for president in 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party. This created a four-way race between Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson for the Democrats, Howard Taft for the Republicans and Eugene V. Debs for the Socialist Party of America. Roosevelt's "New Nationalism" campaign advocated for a strong federal government while Wilson's "New Freedom" campaign advocated for individual rights.

Example Question #2 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

We have never any wish to interfere in the political conditions of any other countries. Especially are we determined not to become implicated in the political controversies of the Old World. With a great deal of hesitation, we have responded to appeals for help to maintain order, protect life and property, and establish responsible government in some of the small countries of the Western Hemisphere. Our private citizens have advanced large sums of money to assist in the necessary financing and relief of the Old World. We have not failed, nor shall we fail to respond, whenever necessary to mitigate human suffering and assist in the rehabilitation of distressed nations. These, too, are requirements which must be met by reason of our vast powers and the place we hold in the world.

Passage adapted from Calvin Coolidge's "Inaugural Address" (March 4, 1925)

What foreign policy principle that dominated this period of of American history is espoused in this passage and what historical event brought radical change to this way of thinking?

Possible Answers:

Isolationism . . . The sinking of the Lusitania

Isolationism . . . Pearl Harbor

National Sovereignty . . . Founding the League of Nations

Exceptionalism . . . The Great Depression

Correct answer:

Isolationism . . . Pearl Harbor

Explanation:

The first sentence of the passage is the textbook definition of isolationism, and is a fairly understandable position given the damage America suffered in World War I, which had ended only a few years prior, and American hostility to further foreign intervention. Calvin Coolidge considered the 1920 Republican victory as a rejection of the Wilsonian position that the United States should join the League of Nations and continued that position in his own administration. Presidents continued to espouse some version of this theory, though it eroded slightly under FDR's administration, until 1941, when the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor forced the country's hand into intervention in World War II.

Example Question #3 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

Click to see a large version of this cartoon...

What viewpoint is this cartoon expressing about Theodore Roosevelt (right) and his opponent in the 1904 election, Alton B. Parker (left)?

Possible Answers:

Roosevelt and Parker's political positions were close to each other

Roosevelt supported American prosperity, while Parker would decrease American prosperity

Roosevelt supported the environment, while Parker wanted to destroy the environment

Roosevelt's hobby was gardening, while Parker had previously been a lumberjack

Roosevelt supported extravagant federal spending, while Parker wanted to decrease federal spending

Correct answer:

Roosevelt supported extravagant federal spending, while Parker wanted to decrease federal spending

Explanation:

In this Puck cartoon, Democratic presidential nominee Alton B. Parker wields an axe in preparation for pruning the vines of “Extravagance,” “Militarism,” “High Tariff,” and “Trusts,” that are strangling the national “Tree of Prosperity.” The malevolent growths are being watered by a grinning President Theodore Roosevelt, who is dressed in his Rough-Rider military uniform. This indicates that the artist thought that Roosevelt supported the "vines" that were decreasing American prosperity, while Parker would but the "vines" and presumably increase prosperity again.

Example Question #4 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

"In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world."

Who delivered this speech? 

Possible Answers:

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt

Harry Truman

Woodrow Wilson

Correct answer:

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Explanation:

FDR's State of the Union address in 1941 has become known as the "Four Freedoms" speech. It was delivered on January 10, 1941 to Congress. The Four Freedoms are:

  • Freedom of speech
  • Freedom of worship
  • Freedom from want
  • Freedom from fear

Example Question #5 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

"The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution."

Which political movement was behind the adoption of this amendment?

Possible Answers:

New Deal Democrats

The Wobblies

The Progressive Movement

The Civil Rights Movement

Correct answer:

The Progressive Movement

Explanation:

The Progressive Movement lasted roughly from the 1890's to the 1920's. It was a period of social activism and political reform in response to the economic inequality of the Gilded Age. Among its lasting political achievements was the adoption of the 17th Amendment in 1913, which provided for the direct election of Senators by the people.

Example Question #6 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

"I dissent, because I think the indisputable facts exhibit a clear violation of Constitutional rights.

This is not a case of keeping people off the streets at night...nor a case of temporary exclusion of a citizen from an area for his own safety or that of the community, nor a case of offering him an opportunity to go temporarily out of an area where his presence might cause danger to himself or to his fellows. On the contrary, it is the case of convicting a citizen as a punishment for not submitting to imprisonment in a concentration camp, based on his ancestry, and solely because of his ancestry, without evidence or inquiry concerning his loyalty and good disposition towards the United States. If this be a correct statement of the facts disclosed by this record, and facts of which we take judicial notice, I need hardly labor the conclusion that Constitutional rights have been violated."

What U.S. Supreme Court decision is this Justice dissenting from? 

Possible Answers:

Korematsu v. United States

Roe v. Wade

Brown v. Board of Education

Plessy v. Ferguson

Correct answer:

Korematsu v. United States

Explanation:

In Korematsu v. United States (1944), the constitutionality of the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II was challenged. By a 6-3 decision, the Supreme Court ruled that this forced internment in detention camps was constitutional because of national security concerns. It remains one of the most controversial Supreme Court decisions. This dissent is by Justice Roberts.

Example Question #7 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

Image by Karl K. Knecht, Evansville Courier, 1912.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:TR-Chemist-1912.JPG

Tr chemist 1912 karl k knecht artist evansville courier

This 1912 political cartoon is making the point that ___________.

Possible Answers:

Roosevelt's Progressive Party was moderate

Roosevelt's Progressive Party had no clear agenda

Roosevelt would say anything to get elected

Roosevelt was a notoriously enthusiastic, and terrible, cook

Roosevelt's Progressive Party was popular with a wide variety of political ideologies

Correct answer:

Roosevelt's Progressive Party had no clear agenda

Explanation:

The cartoon shows "Radical Spice," "Conservative Views," and "Pure Democracy" in the foreground with Roosevelt appearing to stir in a little bit of everything in the "Teddy Speech" bowl. There is no clear indication that the Progressive Party was moderate since we can't see which specific views Roosevelt is adding to his speech. Roosevelt is saying, "The more you mix in, the easier it is to satisfy everyone." Although Roosevelt is clearly trying to appeal to a wide range of political ideologies, there is no proof in the cartoon that he has succeeded. It is implied that Roosevelt will say anything to get elected, however, the fact that he is stirring the speech with a whisk that says "Progressivism" indicates that these are the official views of the Progressive Party. Therefore the best answer is that the Progressive Party does not have a clear agenda.

Example Question #8 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

359px i like a little competition

An editorial cartoon published in 1913 depicting J.P. Morgan.

J.P. Morgan was depicted in this cartoon as responding to the passage of the Clayton Act. What laws did the Clayton Act strengthen?

Possible Answers:

banking insurance

unemployment insurance

tariff laws

antitrust laws

Correct answer:

antitrust laws

Explanation:

The Clayton Act was passed in 1914 to strength U.S. antitrust law. Its purpose was to provide substance and necessary clarification to the Sherman Act, which was passed in 1890. Together, these two acts formed the early basis of antitrust regulation in the United States.

Example Question #9 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

"In the future days, which we seek to make secure, we look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression—everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way—everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want—which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear—which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor—anywhere in the world."

 What event precipitated the delivery of this speech?

Possible Answers:

Brown v. Board of Education

the Haymarket Riots

the onset of World War II in Europe

the 1929 Stock Market Crash

Correct answer:

the onset of World War II in Europe

Explanation:

This excerpt, from FDR's "Four Freedoms" speech, was in response to World War II in Europe. Germany had advanced across the European continent and the Battle of Britain would take place that year. FDR was seeking to combat isolationist attitudes at home, which opposed U.S. involvement in the war.

Example Question #10 : Domestic Politics 1901–1945

"The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution."

What substantive change did this amendment make to the Constitution? 

Possible Answers:

It changed the term of Senators from 4 to 6 years.

It provided for the direct election of Senators by the people.

It gave each Senator 2 votes in the Senate.

It provided for the election of 3 Senators from each state.

Correct answer:

It provided for the direct election of Senators by the people.

Explanation:

This text is the 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It was proposed in 1912 and ratified in 1913. It made a substantive change to the Constitution by providing for the direct election of Senators by the people. Until that time, Senators were appointed by state legislatures.

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