AP Psychology : Subdisciplines and Approaches

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Subdisciplines And Approaches

What is the highest step on Maslow's hierarchy of needs?

Possible Answers:

Physiological needs

Need for love

Need for esteem

Need for self-actualization

Need for safety

Correct answer:

Need for self-actualization

Explanation:

Maslow structured his hierarchy of needs in the following order: physiological needs, need for safety, need for love, need for esteem, and then the need for self-actualization. Ideally, people reach this last step in order to completely fulfill their potential.

Example Question #2 : Subdisciplines And Approaches

Which psychologist is most commonly associated with humanistic psychology?

Possible Answers:

B.F. Skinner

Albert Bandura

Carl Rogers

Sigmund Freud

Ivan Pavlov

Correct answer:

Carl Rogers

Explanation:

Carl Rogers pioneered the humanistic psychology movement. Freud was known for the psychoanalytic approach to psychology, Skinner and Pavlov for the behavioral approach, and Bandura for the social learning approach.

Example Question #311 : History And Research

Which is not a characteristic of the psychoanalytic approach to psychology?

Possible Answers:

External rewards and punishments

Dream symbolism

The unconscious mind

Internal impulses

Sigmund Freud

Correct answer:

External rewards and punishments

Explanation:

External rewards and punishments are a characteristic of the behavioral approach.

Example Question #312 : History And Research

A wife is angry with her husband for not listening to her when, in reality, she is the one who does not listen. Which defense mechanism is she using?

Possible Answers:

Denial

Repression

Intellectualization

Reaction formation

Projection

Correct answer:

Projection

Explanation:

Projection is a defense mechanism in which an individual misattributes his or her negative impulses onto another person. This often occurs when said individual has trouble acknowledging his or her own motivations and feelings.

Example Question #313 : History And Research

What is the difference between Freudians and neo-Freudians?

Possible Answers:

Neo-Freudians rejected Freud's ideas in favor of humanism.

There is no difference.

Neo-Freudians expanded Freud's theories to include social and cultural ideas.

Neo-Fruedians incorporated theories on genetics into Freud's ideas.

Neo-Freudians focused on developing a more favorable view of women than Freud had.

Correct answer:

Neo-Freudians expanded Freud's theories to include social and cultural ideas.

Explanation:

Neo-Freudians dissented from Freud only to bring social and cultural ideas into his established theories.

Example Question #314 : History And Research

Alfred Adler and Carl Jung are best known as which kind of psychologists?

Possible Answers:

Cognitive

Behaviorist

Humanistic

Psychoanalytic

Neo-Freudian

Correct answer:

Neo-Freudian

Explanation:

Adler and Jung are the best known Neo-Freudians. They accepted the basic tenets of Freud's theories but later dissented from him to develop their own theories.

Example Question #315 : History And Research

Which is not one of the Big Five personality traits?

Possible Answers:

Agreeableness

Happiness

Neuroticism

Extraversion

Conscientiousness

Correct answer:

Happiness

Explanation:

Happiness is not one of the Big Five personality traits. The other four choices are, along with openness.

Example Question #3 : Subdisciplines And Approaches

Which of the following is not a fundamental part of Freud's psychoanalytic theory?

Possible Answers:

Superego

Ego

Id

Superid

Correct answer:

Superid

Explanation:

The superid is not a part of Freud's psychological theory.

According to Freud, the id is the unorganized part of personality structure that contains instinctual drives and the source of our needs and wants. The superego is the part of personality structure that reflects proper behavior and morals, often referred to as a "conscience." The ego is the reality principle of our personality stucture and works to balance the wants of the id and superego.

Example Question #4 : Subdisciplines And Approaches

A cognitive psychologist would most likely be interested in which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The bystander effect

Anxiety disorders

Working memory

The sensorimotor stage

Psychodynamic theory

Correct answer:

Working memory

Explanation:

Working memory refers to the "workspace" with which we perform mental operations, such as doing mental math. This concept is most in line with cognitive psychology, as cognition refers to mental operations. While there may be aspects of cognition in each of the other choices, those concepts are more likely to be studied by developmental, social, or abnormal psychologists.

Example Question #318 : History And Research

Which of the following corresponds to the subfield of psychologists who want to determine what happens to the brain when people analyze a problem or become emotional?

Possible Answers:

Developmental Psychology

Clinical Psychology

Educational Psychology

Social Psychology

Biological Psychology

Correct answer:

Biological Psychology

Explanation:

The key words in this question concerns "what happens to the brain".

Define the subfields:

Biological analyzes how behaviors and mental processes are shaped by the brain.

Clinical concerns treatment of behavioral and mental disorders among the population.

Developmental examines changes in behavioral and thought processes over time.

Educational is the branch studying learning.

Social examines the relationships between people.

The best answer is biological psychology.

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