All AP Psychology Resources
Example Question #1 : Biology And Sensation
Gustatory receptors are sensitive to all of the following flavors except __________.
The sensation of spiciness is not actually a taste, but a pain reaction. Chemicals in the food (such as capsaicin) trigger stimulation of free nerve endings in the mouth, resulting in the sensation of spiciness in the same way that the fibers would detect pain.
Sweet, salty, and umami are all tastes that gustatory receptors in the taste buds can recognize independently.
Example Question #2 : Biology And Sensation
Which method is commonly used in sleep research to detect brain waves?
EEG (electroencephalogram) involves the placement of electrodes on a person's scalp to detect brain waves, specifically when the subject is asleep.
Example Question #3 : Biology And Sensation
Where are rods and cones located in the eye?
The optic disc
Rods (which detect black and white) and cones (which detect colors) are both located in the retina, which lines the back of the eye. After the rods and cones detect visual stimuli the information is relayed to the brain via the optic nerve, which exits the eye via the optic disc. There are no photoreceptors on the optic disc, resulting in our blind spot.
Example Question #4 : Biology And Sensation
What types of stimuli result in the creation of echoic memories?
An echoic memory is a momentary, sensory memory of auditory stimuli that lasts for only a couple of seconds. This form of sensory memory may be forgotten or sent to our long-term memory for further encoding.
Example Question #1 : Stimulation And Detection
Which concept is exemplified by being able to distinguish a slight change in light when a dimmer is used to adjust the brightness?
Signal detection theory
The just-noticeable difference is the minimal change that can occur in a stimulus to just barely be detected by the observer. In this case, the stimulus is the brightness of light.
As for the other answer choices, the absolute threshold is the minimal intensity at which a stimulus can just barely be detected. This concept is similar to the just-noticeable difference but has to do with detection of existence, rather than detection of change. Sensory adaptation refers to how an observer becomes less sensitive to a stimulus over time. Signal detection states that an observer's response to a stimulus depends on both their sensitivity and their decision criterion. Transduction is the process of physical signals being converted to neural signals.
Example Question #6 : Biology And Sensation
What are the building blocks of the nervous system?
Neurons are specialized cells that transmit nerve signals. These cells make up the nervous system, and consist of an axon (sends nerve impulses to other neurons), dendrites (receive nerve impulses from other neurons), and soma ( the cell body of the neuron).
Glial cells are considered part of the nervous system as well, but do not represent the fundamental functional unit. Instead, glial cells supply support and nourishment to neurons.
Example Question #2 : Stimulation And Detection
Ps_ch_lo_y is ve_y i_ter_st_ng!
Fairly quickly, you can fill in the blanks above to read "Psychology is very interesting!" Which of the following describes your ability to perceive the meaning of the incomplete sentence?
Signal detection theory
Top-down processing uses larger context to assume smaller bits of missing information. Bottom-up processing is the opposite - using small bits of information to understand a bigger picture. Signal detection theory is the ability to choose between and identify stimuli. Perceptual constancy refers to the tendency in humans to see familiar things as having similar shapes, colors, and sizes, in spite of changes that may have occurred in that object.
Example Question #8 : Biology And Sensation
What cells in the eye transduce light waves into neural impulses so that the brain can process the visual information?
rods and cones
primary visual cortex
rods and cones
Rods and cones are the light-sensitive receptor cells that are responsible for transducing light waves into neural impulses.
Example Question #9 : Biology And Sensation
Artists often use monocular depth cues to give illusions of depth to their paintings. Which of the following is not a monocular depth cue?
shadow or shading
Autokinetic illusion is when a single unmoving light in a dark room appears to move when stared at for several seconds. It is not a monocular depth clue.
Interposition refers to the monocular depth clue indicating an objects relative closeness by seeing whether that object is stacked on top of an object, or whether an object is stacked on it.
Relative size refers to objects farther away appearing smaller.
Shadow (or shading) refers to closer objects reflecting more light, and thus appearing less dark, than objects further away.
Example Question #10 : Biology And Sensation
A stimulus must be detected __________ of the time to be considered absolute threshold.
Absolute threshold refers to the minimum amount of a given stimulus (light, odor, sound, pressure, or taste) that can be detected at least 50% of the time.