AP Psychology : Sense of Self

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Sense Of Self

People with this type of control tend to respond to internal states and desires and tend to view success as a result of personal efforts. Which of the following terms is being described?

Possible Answers:

Organizational control

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

Self-control

Concurrent control

Internal locus of control

Correct answer:

Internal locus of control

Explanation:

Example: A student fails a test, acknowledges that s/he didn't study enough and didn't understand some of the test's key questions, and subsequently meets with the teacher to request advice on ways to improve next time. This student would be said to have an internal locus of control.

Example Question #2 : Sense Of Self

What is the psychological term that describes the sum total of beliefs that an one has about oneself?

Possible Answers:

None of these answers are correct

Overarching sense

Self-concept

Introspective-concept

Collective view

Correct answer:

Self-concept

Explanation:

The term "self-concept" refers to the sum total of beliefs that people have about themselves. The self-concept is made up of cognitive molecules or units called self-schemas: beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of self-relevant information.

Example Question #3 : Sense Of Self

It has been shown that people consistently overestimate the strength and duration of their emotional reactions. When asked to predict how they would respond to future emotional events, people err on the side of being overly-optimistic. This phenomenon is known as __________.

Possible Answers:

confirmation bias

durability bias

self-perception

introspection

strength of mind

Correct answer:

durability bias

Explanation:

Durability bias is present when people overestimate the strength and duration of their emotional reactions. When people participate in affective forecasting—the process of predicting how they would feel in response to future emotional events—durability biases are usually evident.

Example Question #3 : Sense Of Self

Which of the following illustrates a person who is driven by extrinsic motivations?

Possible Answers:

Jill loves to work hard at her job. She firmly believes that hard work is equally rewarding and necessary. 

A boy is promised $20 if he plays hard and hustles in his basketball game, so he does.

A girl studies diligently for her organic chemistry exam because she has an uncanny love for the subject.

None of these answers illustrate extrinsic motivation

Tom loves a good challenge. When given the opportunity to participate in a trivia challenge at school, he eagerly accepts and prepares.

Correct answer:

A boy is promised $20 if he plays hard and hustles in his basketball game, so he does.

Explanation:

Extrinsic motivation originates from factors outside the person. People are said to be extrinsically motivated when they engage in an activity as a means to an end, for tangible benefits. Intrinsic motivation originates from factors within a person. People are said to be intrinsically motivated when they engage in an activity for the sake of their own interest, the challenge, or sheer enjoyment.

Money is a common extrinsic motivator, while enjoyment and moral or religious beliefs can be intrinsic motivators.

Example Question #5 : Sense Of Self

What psychological term describes behaviors designed to sabotage one's own performance in order to provide a subsequent excuse for failure?

Possible Answers:

Egotistic tendency

Self-agrandizing

Self-enhancement

Misimpressions

Self-handicapping

Correct answer:

Self-handicapping

Explanation:

Self-handicapping behaviors are actions people take to handicap their own performances in order to build an excuse for anticipated failures. These times of purposely setting up for failure are to the end of preserving self-esteem in the individual; it is a self-protective measure.

Example Question #4 : Sense Of Self

What are high self-monitors likely to do?

Possible Answers:

They are likely to feel self-conscious in social situations

They are likely to monitor themselves for good manners and be more conscientious of others

They are likely to look at situational cues for how to behave

They are likely to criticize themselves more than low-self monitors

Correct answer:

They are likely to look at situational cues for how to behave

Explanation:

High-self monitors, despite their natural way of behaving, are more likely to alter behavior in accordance to their immediate surroundings. That is, instead of acting whichever way they normally do or prefer, they will look for cues in their environment for how they should behave. Low-self monitors consistently act the same way regardless of the situation.

Example Question #5 : Sense Of Self

According to Abramson's Theory of Attribution, a depressed person would most likely believe in __________.

Possible Answers:

a stable and specific internal locus of control

a stable and global external locus of control

a stable and specific external locus of control

an unstable and global external locus of control

a stable and global internal locus of control

Correct answer:

a stable and global external locus of control

Explanation:

Abramson's theory examines three dimensions of attributing control of an event:

Internal vs Externalam I in control, or is someone/something else?

Specific vs Globalis this true of just this one situation, or more generally?

Stable vs Unstablewill things be like this forever, or is there potential for change?

Depressed people will most likely have a stable and global external locus of control, believing themselves powerless in all aspects of their lives, and unable to ever seize control of their own lives.

Example Question #8 : Sense Of Self

Cameron was born with male sexual organs, but identifies as a female. Female is how Cameron indicates her __________.

Possible Answers:

Sex

None of these

Sexual Orientation

Gender Identity

Gender Role

Correct answer:

Gender Identity

Explanation:

As defined by the APA, a person's gender identity refers to “one’s sense of oneself as male, female, or transgender”, and determines the pronouns (he/she/ze) that they prefer. "Sex" refers to physical sex characteristics. Sexual orientation refers to one's preference in terms of sexual partners. Gender role refers to societally conditioned roles played by individuals in their society or community (usually based on traditional gender norms).

Example Question #6 : Sense Of Self

Which of the following choices represents the most appropriate definition for the term "sense of self"?

Possible Answers:

The composite of one's personality traits and values

A dynamic concept that embodies the way a person thinks about themselves, their beliefs, traits, and relationship with the world 

A person's religous beliefs that develop one's sense of morality

A stable concept one carries over time that embodies the way a person thinks about the world around them

Correct answer:

A dynamic concept that embodies the way a person thinks about themselves, their beliefs, traits, and relationship with the world 

Explanation:

The "sense of self" is an essential term in both social psychology and sociology. It is best defined as a dynamic concept that embodies the way a person thinks about themselves, their beliefs, traits, and relationship with the world. Many people choose to define themselves in different ways. One person's sense of self may depend on their responsibilities in the world, such as being a mother, daughter, or performing some service to society. Another may strictly define themselves to their own inner thoughts and narrative. No matter which way one chooses to define oneself, it is inevitably dynamic as you change and grow from experience.

Example Question #7 : Sense Of Self

According to Carl Rogers, which of the following best defines our self-image? 

Possible Answers:

None of these

The way we value ourselves and what we contribute to the world

The way we see ourselves according to both our physical appearance and personality traits

The ideal person we'd like to be and work on cultivating as we get older

Correct answer:

The way we see ourselves according to both our physical appearance and personality traits

Explanation:

According to Carl Rogers’ theory of what makes up our sense of self, a person's self image is a composite of how we view our physical and personal traits. Some people may have an unhealthy self-image (i.e. people who believe that they are overweight when they are not and resort to self-starvation). Some others have an inflated self-image that may not correspond with reality (e.g. they see themselves as more intelligent, attractive, etc).

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