AP Psychology : Other Emotion Concepts

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Other Emotion Concepts

Based on the theory of mood-congruent memory, which type of memories is a subject most likely to recall when he is upset?

Possible Answers:

Positive memories

Inconsistent memories

Information-laden memories

False or fabricated memories

Negative memories

Correct answer:

Negative memories

Explanation:

Mood-congruent memory is the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's good or bad mood. Thus, if the subject is upset, he is more likely to recall negative memories during which he experienced a similar emotional state.

Example Question #2 : Other Emotion Concepts

Which of these is not a universal emotional expression that has been observed in virtually every culture?

Possible Answers:

Joy

Contempt

Surprise

Sadness

Confusion

Correct answer:

Confusion

Explanation:

There are seven "basic" emotions that have been observed in nearly every culture on earth, and are recognizable between cultures even if those cultures have never interacted previously. These fundamental emotions are: joy, sadness, anger, fear, surpise, contempt, and disgust. Confusion is not one of the universal expressions.

Example Question #3 : Other Emotion Concepts

Which part of the brain is NOT a part of the limbic system?

Possible Answers:

hippocampus

All of these are parts of the limbic system.

amygdala

corpus callosum

Correct answer:

corpus callosum

Explanation:

The limbic system deals with emotion and memory. The corpus callosum connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain.

Example Question #2 : Other Emotion Concepts

What is the scientific study of optimal human functioning?

Possible Answers:

Gestalt psychology

Positive psychology

Existential psychology

Optimistic psychology

Euphoric psychology

Correct answer:

Positive psychology

Explanation:

Positive psychology is a growing field of psychological research that seeks to grow the empirical data on optimal human functioning and positive emotions (e.g., longitudinal happiness)

Example Question #5 : Other Emotion Concepts

Who was responsible for groundbreaking work on emotions and their expression throughout cultures?

Possible Answers:

Sigmund Freud

None of these

Erik Erikson

Carl Jung

Paul Ekman

Correct answer:

Paul Ekman

Explanation:

Paul Ekman was primarily responsible for identifying many of the possible emotions of the human species and how these emotions were expressed facially. He argued that emotions were universal, though culture produced varying factors on to what extent they could be expressed and what situations/ideas would evoke which emotions. He came to this conclusion by studying emotions across cultures.

Example Question #6 : Other Emotion Concepts

Which of the following is an example of Richard Lazarus's theory of emotion?

Possible Answers:

Roland, who loves animals, sees a dog and immediately runs to the dog, joyfully rubbing the dog's belly and asking if it is a good boy. Yoel, who was bitten by a dog when he was seven, fearfully turns his back on the dog and performs a quick breathing exercise to calm himself down.

Josip and Mikkhail are sitting next to one another on a flight. Josip, who is a pilot, feels relaxed, while Mikkhail, who has a big problem with heights, feels afraid and tense.

None of these are examples of Lazarus' theory

All of these are examples of Lazarus' theory

Brandon walks down a very busy road and interprets the cars as a threat to his survival, so he feels fear. Marina walks down the same busy road and interprets the car as a sign that she's not alone, so she feels happy.

Correct answer:

All of these are examples of Lazarus' theory

Explanation:

Richard Lazarus's theory of appraisal, which departs from a physiological explanation for emotion, posits that emotions are a result of people's subjective experience of an event. This theory is exemplified by the old tale of many different people looking at an elephant: each of these people will focus on different aspects of this elephant, like its ears, trunk, feet, etc. Likewise, someone's emotional experience of a busy road depends on his or her interpretation. Many might fear the busy road. Others accept it and feel content. Others focus on the sun outside and feel joy.

Example Question #171 : Motivation, Emotion, And Personality

Is it accurate to say that emotions are a product of both met and unmet needs?

Possible Answers:

Generally speaking yes. Emotions can act as a signal that needs have been met or not met, though certain emotions are purely reactionary and do not have an easily identifiable need driving them.

None of these are appropriate responses.

No, emotions are purely physiological in nature. Things that happen in our body create different emotions.

No, emotions are often just a product of our own subjective beliefs about the world. Emotions occur when these beliefs are proved wrong by the reality of the world.

Yes, with no exceptions, we will only experience an emotion if our needs are not met or if they get met. This includes reactions like surprise and shock, our physical display of these emotions are designed as signals to those around us.  

Correct answer:

Generally speaking yes. Emotions can act as a signal that needs have been met or not met, though certain emotions are purely reactionary and do not have an easily identifiable need driving them.

Explanation:

Emotions play a major role in signaling whether or not needs are being met. For instance, if we feel sad, this could be a signal that emotional, or even physical, needs are not being met. If we feel happy, this is a sign we've done something right that has fulfilled one need or another. There are other emotions, however, that are more complex. Things like surprise can be purely reactionary and unrelated to our needs, where our body is preparing itself to ascertain more information about the event (I.E. widening of the eyes to see more, opening the mouth for more respiration).

Example Question #2 : Other Emotion Concepts

Men are less likely to express emotion than women. Is this statement true?

Possible Answers:

Yes, but only in female-dominated cultures

No, women are just as likely to express anger towards strangers

No, men are more likely to express sadness

Yes, in all cultures this is the pattern

This statement is not specific enough in scope to be a valid psychological statement or principle

Correct answer:

This statement is not specific enough in scope to be a valid psychological statement or principle

Explanation:

The statement used in the example is an example of a statement that, while discussing a psychological topic, is too general in nature to accurately reflect a valid psychological principle. Also, the statement offers no proof of its assertion, and does not mention any research in support of its assertion. Even if a statement seems intuitively accurate, in order for it to be a valid statement it must be specific, and supported by evidence.

Example Question #3 : Other Emotion Concepts

What is the facial-feedback hypothesis?

Possible Answers:

The idea that using the muscles involved in a facially expressing a certain emotion will intensify the feeling

That our mirror neurons in our brain allow us to see a face and feel that emotion

The idea that using the muscles involved in a certain emotion will make you feel sad over time, since you are only superficially creating an emotion rather than feeling it

None of these

That our mirror neurons in our brain allow us to feel more intensely the emotion we are witnessing in another person

Correct answer:

The idea that using the muscles involved in a facially expressing a certain emotion will intensify the feeling

Explanation:

The facial-feedback hypothesis is the idea that using the muscles involved in a certain emotion will make you feel that emotion. By expressing emotions with one's face, that emotion is intensified by the feedback loop created by this process.

Example Question #174 : Motivation, Emotion, And Personality

Which of the following emotions is commonly associated with a Type A personality?

Possible Answers:

Sadness

Happiness

Hostility

Depression

Lethargy

Correct answer:

Hostility

Explanation:

Type A personalities are characterized as being very competitive, goal-driven, and impatient. Additionally, Type A personalities are most likely to exhibit high levels of anger, hostility, and cynicism. While all humans will, at some point, experience lethargy, sadness, happiness, and depression these are, specifically, not characteristic of a Type A personality.

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