AP Psychology : Methods of Altering Consciousness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Which of the following is not a method of reaching an altered state of consciousness?

Possible Answers:

Sleep

All of these allow one to reach an altered state of consciousness

Meditation

Psychoactive drugs

Hypnosis

Correct answer:

All of these allow one to reach an altered state of consciousness

Explanation:

Hypnosis, meditation, and recreational drugs are all methods to induce an altered state of consiousness. These do not occur naturally, and require proactive involvement by the subject. There are, however, altered states of conciousness that occur completely naturally, such as sleep, daydreaming, or even altered states that can be caused by sleep deprivation. 

Example Question #50 : Consciousness

Which of the following statements is true regarding hypnosis?

Possible Answers:

The effects of hypnosis can last long after the session is over

A session of hypnosis can allow the subject to reliably recall memories they had forgotten or repressed

While under hypnosis, subjects can be coerced into performing actions they normally would not

The effects of hypnosis are predictable, and generally the same for all subjects

Hypnosis may allow subjects to recall past lives 

Correct answer:

The effects of hypnosis can last long after the session is over

Explanation:

The effects of hypnosis have the potential to last long after the session is over. 

All individuals react differently to hypnosis and the effects are difficult to predict. Though it can reduce inhibitions, hypnosis cannot force a subject to do something they normally would not. Also, hypnosis is not a reliable method of extracting repressed memories, and there is no evidence to suggest it will allow one to remember past lives.

Example Question #51 : Consciousness

What is the key difference between the state and non-state theory of hypnosis?

Possible Answers:

Non-state asserts that there is no actual altered state of consciousness during hypnosis and that the person is acting out the role of a hypnotized person. State asserts that during hypnosis the person is accessing a different state of consciousness. 

Non-state claims that a person simply gets sleepy during hypnosis, but does not enter a new consciousness. State claims that hypnosis allows the person to access their subconscious mind.  

Non-state asserts that hypnosis is harmful. State claims that hypnosis can provide benefits to the patient.

Non-state asserts that while under hypnosis one slips in and out of consciousness, at times expressing subconscious fears or desires. State asserts that during hypnosis the person is accessing an elevated state of spiritual consciousness.

Correct answer:

Non-state asserts that there is no actual altered state of consciousness during hypnosis and that the person is acting out the role of a hypnotized person. State asserts that during hypnosis the person is accessing a different state of consciousness. 

Explanation:

There are three primary theories of hypnosis.

Non-state, also known as "role theory," claims that hypnosis does not alter one's state of mind. Instead, the person undergoing hypnosis is acting out a particular role for a therapeutic benefit.

State theory asserts that a person does not have any agency in the matter of hypnosis. Rather, they are completely submerged in a different state of mind.

The third theory is dissocation, in which a person involuntarily decides to split their own consciousness.

There is no definitive proof to back up any of these claims, though hypnosis remains a popular way to treat a variety of disorders.

Example Question #2 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

What term describes people who are more easily hypnotized than others?

Possible Answers:

hypnotizable

gullible

highly-suggestible

receptive

convincible

Correct answer:

highly-suggestible

Explanation:

"Highly-suggestible" is the term for people who are more easily hypnotized.

Example Question #3 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Which of the following is an accidental or pathological cause of an altered state of consciousness?

Possible Answers:

Sleep deprivation

All of these

Psychosis

Infections

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are many purposeful ways to induce an altered state of consciousness, but some accidental or pathological ones include infections, sleep deprivation, or psychosis. Some others are fasting, epilepsy, or traumatic experiences. An altered state of consciousness due to any of these is often an indicator of either a mental or physical health issue and should be addressed right away. 

Example Question #54 : Consciousness

Which of the following is not a type of psychoactive drug?

Possible Answers:

Alcohol

Barbiturates

All of these are psychoactive drugs.

Opiates

Coffee

Correct answer:

All of these are psychoactive drugs.

Explanation:

Psychoactive drugs are any substances that alter behavior, mood, memory, or perception. Some are stimulants, such as the caffeine found in coffee. Others are depressants, such as alcohol.

Example Question #4 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

A research participant is asked seven questions during an interview. Three weeks later, he is asked six different questions and one question that he was asked before. He answers the familiar question more quickly than the new questions. This is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

dualism

subconscious

priming

latent content

Correct answer:

priming

Explanation:

Priming refers to a person's ability to more quickly/accurately respond to previously asked questions, whether they remember them or not. This is closely related to the mere-exposure effect, which states that we are more likely to prefer familiar things than unfamiliar things.

Example Question #56 : Consciousness

Which of the following drugs is an opiate?

Possible Answers:

Marijuana

Cocaine

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)

Alcohol

Oxycodone

Correct answer:

Oxycodone

Explanation:

Opiates, such as heroin, are drugs derived from the opium poppy. These highly addictive substances are used as mood elevators and painkillers.

Example Question #5 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Antagonists are a type of drug that do which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Speed up body processes

Slow down body systems

Change the chemistry of the brain by preventing neurotransmitters from entering receptor sites

Change one's perception of reality

Change the chemistry of the brain by mimicking neurotransmitters

Correct answer:

Change the chemistry of the brain by preventing neurotransmitters from entering receptor sites

Explanation:

Antagonists are a type of psychoactive drug. Psychoactive drugs are drugs that change the chemistry of the brain. There are two types that do this: antagonists and agonists. Agonists change the chemistry of the brain by mimicking neurotransmitters. Antagonists also change the chemistry of the brain, but they do not mimic neurotransmitters. Instead, they simply prevent neurotransmitters from entering receptor sites.

Example Question #6 : Methods Of Altering Consciousness

Alcohol belongs to which of the following drug categories?

Possible Answers:

Stimulants

Depressants

Suppressants

Barbiturates 

Hallucinogens

Correct answer:

Depressants

Explanation:

The three categories of drugs that have been established are depressants, stimulants, and hallucinogens. Although an individual may seem lively with a small amount of alcohol, alcohol is actually a depressant. The liveliness comes from the fact that alcohol acts as a disinhibitor. This means it will act to slow down neural processing and brain activity responsible for judgment and inhibitions. As a result, people are more likely to act out in ways that they would not under unaffected judgment and conditions. Barbiturates are tranquilizers. These also fall under the category depressants; therefore, this would also be incorrect.

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