AP Psychology : Interpersonal Perceptions and Dynamics

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

For which of the following emotions did Paul Ekman not find a universal facial expression?

Possible Answers:

Fear

Disgust

Envy

Anger

Joy

Correct answer:

Envy

Explanation:

Through his studies of many diverse Western and Eastern culturesincluding the isolated Fore tribes of Papua New Guinea, who could not possibly have learned these facial expressions from the media of another peopleEkman found universal facial expressions for joy, anger, fear, disgust and sadness.

Example Question #2 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

Molly identifies as bisexual. This is an expression of Molly's __________.

Possible Answers:

sexual interest

sexual orientation

sexual identity

gender identity

sex role

Correct answer:

sexual orientation

Explanation:

A person's sexual orientation describes the kind(s) of person they find themselves romantically/sexually attracted to. People who identify as heterosexual are attracted to members of the opposite gender, while homosexuals are attracted to people of the same gender. People who identify as bisexual are attracted to both males and females, and those who identify as asexual are not attracted to anyone in that way.

Example Question #3 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

What is the false consensus effect?

Possible Answers:

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others want to work with us

Falsely consenting to participate in an experiment

The tendency to underestimate the extent to which others agree with ourselves

The tendency to underestimate the extent to which others want to work with us

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with ourselves

Correct answer:

The tendency to overestimate the extent to which others agree with ourselves

Explanation:

The false consensus effect describes how most people believe that other individuals have a similar mindset as themselves. This is a popular term in social psychology, along with concepts such as groupthink and group polarization.

Example Question #4 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

What is the cocktail party effect?

Possible Answers:

Rating people as more attractive in social settings

Being able to listen to one voice amidst other voices and distractions

Developing a unique elevator pitch to multiple employers

Being able to manage multiple conversations at once

Eating more food when presented with "cocktail party" sized silverware, as opposed to traditional silverware

Correct answer:

Being able to listen to one voice amidst other voices and distractions

Explanation:

The cocktail party effect is being able to listen to one voice amidst other voices and distractions. This term comes from the fact that cocktail parties often involve large conversations, during which you may wish to focus on one particular person's commentary.

Example Question #5 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

Which of the following would be used to test infant attachment?

Possible Answers:

Stanford-Binet Test

Rorschach Inkblot Test

Myers-Briggs Test

Asch's Experiment

The Strange Situation Test

Correct answer:

The Strange Situation Test

Explanation:

By Mary Ainsworth, the Strange Situation Test is used to assess the various types of attachment. In the Strange Situation Test, infants or young children are put in a room with their caregiver. Secure attachment between the caregiver and child provides the base for the child's exploration. Upon leaving the child with a stranger in the room, Mary Ainsworth could assess the attachment between the caregiver and child.  

If the child cries when the caregiver leaves and is relieved when they return, the attachment is secure. If the child cries when the caregiver leaves and continues to cry and resist the caregiver when they return, the attachment is resistant. If the child does not cry when the caregiver leaves and avoids contact when they return, the attachment is avoidant. Resistant and avoidant attachments are usually the result of an inconsistent caregiver.

Example Question #6 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

A child that is not distressed when their caretaker leaves a room, and avoids contact upon their return demonstrates which type of attachment?

Possible Answers:

Dismissive

Avoidant

Secure

Permissive

Resistant

Correct answer:

Avoidant

Explanation:

By Mary Ainsworth, the Strange Situation Test is used to assess they types of attachment. In the Strange Situation Test, infants or young children are put in a room with their caregiver. Secure attachment between the caregiver and child provides the base for the child's exploration. Upon leaving the child with a stranger in the room, Mary Ainsworth could assess the attachment between the caregiver and child.  

If the child cries when the caregiver leaves and is relieved when they return, the attachment is secure. If the child cries when the caregiver leaves and continues to cry and resist the caregiver when they return, the attachment is resistant. If the child does not cry when the caregiver leaves and avoids contact when they return, the attachment is avoidant.  

Resistant and avoidant attachments are usually the result on an inconsistent caregiver; infants and young children learn that they cannot depend on their caregiver to consistently meet their needs. As a result, they are less dependent and attached to that caregiver.

Example Question #7 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

According to __________, people have multiple intelligences.

Possible Answers:

Howard Gardner

Lewis Terman 

B.F. Skinner

Simon Binet

Sigmund Freud

Correct answer:

Howard Gardner

Explanation:

Howard Gardner proposed that humans have multiple intelligences. Rather than having an overarching, general intelligence, he hypothesized that everyone had differing intelligences and gifts in eight specific areas: musical, visual, verbal, logical, bodily, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic. According to Gardner, every individual had a unique ratio of these intelligences, each of which he referred to as "the g factor."

There is evidence today that supports Gardner’s theory. The cerebral cortex is divided into many different areas, each a different “Brodmann’s area.” Research shows that each area has different responsibilities. For example, a lack of cells in Brodmann area 24 is correlated with autism, while too many cells is correlated with William’s syndrome.

Evidence for Gardner’s theory can also be found when studying Savant syndrome. Individuals with Savant syndrome generally have low IQs and cannot solve simple problems, but are extremely gifted in one specific area. A Savant individual may not be able to solve a simple math problem like “2+2,” but may easily solve an abstract calculus concept.

Example Question #8 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

Which of the following exemplifies the difference between the compliance strategies of door-in-the-face and foot-in-the-door?

Possible Answers:

An example of door-in-the-face is when you want to go to the movies so you ask your mom to drive you 100 miles to the amusement park, she refuses, and then you ask if she can drive you 10 miles to the movie theater. An example of foot-in-the-door is when you need $30 for the field trip next week so you ask your dad for $20 today and $10 tomorrow.

An example of door-in-the-face is when you want to go to the movies so you ask your mom to drive you 100 miles to the amusement park, she refuses, and then you ask if she can drive you 10 miles to the movie theater. An example of foot-in-the-door is when you need $30 for the field trip next week so you ask your dad for $10 today and $20 tomorrow.

An example of door-in-the-face is when you want to go to the movies so you ask your mom to drive you 10 miles to the movie theater, she refuses, and then you ask if she can drive you 100 miles to the amusement park. An example of foot-in-the-door is when you need $30 for the field trip next week so you ask your dad for $10 today and $20 tomorrow.

An example of door-in-the-face is when you need $30 for the field trip next week so you ask your dad for $10 today and $20 tomorrow. An example of foot-in-the-door is when you want to go to the movies so you ask your mom to drive you 100 miles to the amusement park, she refuses, and then you ask if she can drive you 10 miles to the movie theater. 

An example of door-in-the-face is when you want to go to the movies so you ask your mom to drive you 100 miles to the amusement park, she refuses, and then you ask if she can drive you 10 miles to the movie theater. An example of foot-in-the-door is when you need $30 for the field trip next week so you ask your dad for $15 today and $15 tomorrow.

Correct answer:

An example of door-in-the-face is when you want to go to the movies so you ask your mom to drive you 100 miles to the amusement park, she refuses, and then you ask if she can drive you 10 miles to the movie theater. An example of foot-in-the-door is when you need $30 for the field trip next week so you ask your dad for $10 today and $20 tomorrow.

Explanation:

The strategy of door-in-the-face is starting with a request bigger than your goal (100 miles to amusement park) and following it with your actual goal (10 miles to the movie theater), so that the real goal seems small and reasonable by comparison. 

Foot-in-the-door is when you begin by getting someone to agree to a smaller request ($10 today) and follow it up with a larger request ($20 tomorrow).

Example Question #9 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

John asks Mary if she will write his research paper for him. After she declines, he asks her if she will simply edit the paper once it is finished.

This is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

Foot-in-the-door

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Door-in-the-face

Norms of Reciprocity

Attribution Theory

Correct answer:

Door-in-the-face

Explanation:

Door-in-the-face is a compliance strategy that describes the phenomenon by which people are more likely to agree to a request if it is preceded by a much larger one. In this case, John begins by asking Mary to write his paper (the large request) and then immediately follows with the request that she edit it (the small request).

Example Question #10 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

Julie asks Jeff if he will vacuum the living room. After he agrees to do so, she asks if he will instead just vacuum the entire house.

This is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

Foot-in-the-Door

Door-in-the-Face

Norms of Reciprocity

Attribution Theory

Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Correct answer:

Foot-in-the-Door

Explanation:

Foot-in-the-door is a compliance strategy that explains that once someone can get a person to agree to a small request, that person will be more likely to then agree to a larger request. In this case, Julie asks Jeff to vacuum the living room (the small request), which makes him more likely to agree to vacuum the whole house (the large request).

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