AP Psychology : Influential Psychologists

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Influential Psychologists

Which psychologist studied the instinctive behavior in greylag geese and jackdaws, investigated the principle of imprinting, and became widely known for his descriptions of imprinting as an instinctive emotional bond?

Possible Answers:

Charles Darwin

Phineas Gage

Kondrad Lorenz

Lev Vygotsky

Alfred Kinsey

Correct answer:

Kondrad Lorenz

Explanation:

Konrad Lorenz was an Austrian zoologist, ethologist, and ornithologist. He is regarded as one of the founders of modern ethology. Lorenz won the Nobel Prize in 1973 for Physiology or Medicine (alongside Nikolass Tinbergen and Karl von Frisch) and is the author of numerous books. 

Example Question #2 : Influential Psychologists

Who is credited with creating a scale that measures an individual's sexuality on a scale from 0 (exclusively heterosexual) to 6 (exclusively homosexual)?

Possible Answers:

Karen Horney

Havelock Ellis

Sigmund Freud

Rollo May

Alfred Kinsey

Correct answer:

Alfred Kinsey

Explanation:

This measure, known today as the Kinsey Scale, was developed by its namesake at Indiana University during his study of male and female sexuality from 1940 to 1953.

Example Question #3 : Influential Psychologists

Elizabeth Loftus' "Lost in the Mall" Study aimed to examine the creation of __________.

Possible Answers:

stereotypes and prejudice

schemae

romantic attachment

false memories

self-fulfilling prophecies

Correct answer:

false memories

Explanation:

The study asked participants to recall and write down information about an event from their childhood in which they became separated from their parent in a crowded shopping mall. What the participants did not know was that this "event" was a fictional scenario designed to appear as a plausible part of their pasts.

Example Question #4 : History And Principles Of Psychology

Which famous theorist believed most of human desire laid in the unconscious state of mind? 

Possible Answers:

Lawrence Kohlberg 

Abraham Maslow 

Jean Piaget 

B.F. Skinner 

Sigmund Freud 

Correct answer:

Sigmund Freud 

Explanation:

Freud was a huge proponent of the unconscious state of mind and believed human beings buried most of their unwanted thoughts and desires there. This concept is the basis for Freudian psychoanalytic theory and principles.

Example Question #5 : History And Principles Of Psychology

Who theorized that there are certain archetypes that are common across cultures, also known as the collective unconscious? 

Possible Answers:

William James

Sigmund Freud

Noam Chomsky

Albert Bandura

Carl Jung

Correct answer:

Carl Jung

Explanation:

Carl Jung was strongly influenced by Freud's idea of the unconscious mind, and took it one step further into society as a whole. He believed that members of the same species have inborn ideas and images that are common across cultures.

Example Question #4 : Influential Psychologists

Which of the following pairings of psychologists and their schools is incorrect?

Possible Answers:

Carl Rogers - Humanism

John Watson - Behavioralism

B.F. Skinner - Humanism

Sigmund Freud - Psychoanalysis

Rollo May - Existential Psychology

Correct answer:

B.F. Skinner - Humanism

Explanation:

Like John Watson, B. F. Skinner was a Behavioralist. He is best known for developing the theory of operant conditioning as an alternative to Pavlov's classical conditioning.

Example Question #5 : Influential Psychologists

Which famous psychologist developed a model for psychosocial development that includes eight stages?

Possible Answers:

Albert Bandura

Jean Piaget

Ivan Pavlov

Sigmund Freud

Erik Erikson

Correct answer:

Erik Erikson

Explanation:

Erik Erikson believed that psychosocial development follows an eight-stage progression. Each stage consists of two competing paths of development (e.g. trust v. mistrust).

Erikson's eight stages are trust v. mistrust, autonomy v. shame/doubt, initiative v. guilt, industry v. inferiority, identity v. role confusion, intimacy v. isolation, generativity v. stagnation, and integrity v. despair.

Example Question #8 : History And Principles Of Psychology

Who developed the first psychology lab in 1879?

Possible Answers:

John Harrison

Carl Jung

William James

Sigmund Freud

Wilhelm Wundt

Correct answer:

Wilhelm Wundt

Explanation:

Wilhelm Wundt, also known as the "Father of Experimental Psychology", developed the first formal psychology lab at the University of Leipzig in 1879.

Example Question #9 : History And Principles Of Psychology

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow were two of the founders of which psychological perspective?

Possible Answers:

Psychoanalytic

Behavioral

Phenomenological

Psychodynamic

Humanistic 

Correct answer:

Humanistic 

Explanation:

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow are both associated with the Humanistic (also sometimes called the Client-Centered) approach to psychology, which emphasizes people's underlying desire and need for self-actualization. The humanist approach focuses more on encouraging a holistic view of mental health and self-actualization, as opposed to a problem-focused treatment model. 

Example Question #6 : Influential Psychologists

Jean-Martin Charcot is known for developing the Salpetriere into the world's first major school for which discipline?

Possible Answers:

Phrenology

Existential Psychology

Neurology

Psychoanalysis

Trepanning

Correct answer:

Neurology

Explanation:

In 1882, Charcot established the first neurology clinic at the Salpetriere, an accomplishment for which he is often known as "The Father of Neurology".

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