AP Psychology : Genetics

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Genetics

Red-green color-blindness is a recessive trait carried on the X chromosome.

Which of the following is true of a woman that is red-green color blind if her husband has normal vision?

Possible Answers:

Some of her female children will be red-green colorblind

All of her female children will be red-green color blind

None of her male children will be red-green color blind

Some of her male children will be red-green color blind

All of her male children will be red-green color blind

Correct answer:

All of her male children will be red-green color blind

Explanation:

The gene for red-green color blindness is on the X chromosome, and the trait is recessive. Females carry two copies of the X chromosome, while males carry only one. The genotypes of the parents must be XrXr for the mother and XRY for the father, with Xr representing the recessive color-blind allele and XR representing the dominant healthy allele.

The possible genotypes for the children of these two individuals are: XrXR, XrY, XrXR, XrY

Any sons must receive the Y chromosome from the father and a color-blind Xr chromosome from the mother, giving them all the genotype XrY. All of the couple's sons will be color-blind.

Any daughters must receive the dominant healthy XR chromosome from the father and a color-blind Xr chromosome from the mother, giving the all the genotype XrXR. All of the couple's daughters will have normal vision.

Example Question #2 : Genetics

Which list of terms describes the correct developmental order?

Possible Answers:

fetus, zygote, embryo, baby

embryo, zygote, fetus, baby

zygote, embryo, fetus, baby

embryo, fetus, baby, zygote

fetus, embryo, zygote, baby

Correct answer:

zygote, embryo, fetus, baby

Explanation:

The zygote refers to a fertilized egg. At eight weeks, the baby becomes known as an embryo, and fetus refers to the stage of development between 8 weeks and birth. 

Example Question #3 : Genetics

What's the correct definition of epistasis?

Possible Answers:

When the outside environment interacts with genes and creates mental illness

When a disorder results from one gene

None of these

When the function of one gene depends on the prior function of another

When a disorder results from the interaction of multiple genes

Correct answer:

When the function of one gene depends on the prior function of another

Explanation:

Epistasis is when one gene is dependent on the prior function of another. Epistasis can influence the development of many mental disorders.

Example Question #4 : Genetics

Which of the following is influenced by genetics?

Possible Answers:

Personality

Physical Appearance

Mental illness

Physical illness

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Our genes have an almost frightening level of influence on how we develop and grow. Genetic influence has been illustrated by many studies focused on twins. Many researchers have found that even when twins were reared in different environments, twins still had significant similarities in personality, intelligence, interests, and behavior. This is not to say that genes are the only factor, they are simply a significant factor in a sea of, nearly infinite, factors influencing development.

Example Question #5 : Genetics

"Nature vs. nurture" refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

A debate about the degree to which our hormones and brain chemistry ("nature") or our environment/surroundings ("nurture") influence and shape us.

The phenomenon in which humans' instinct to nurture their familial relationships overrides their willingness to preserve the environment

A debate about the degree to which our inherited genetic qualities ("nature") or domestic surroundings ("nurture") influence and shape us.

None of these

A debate about the degree to which our inherited genetic and biological qualities ("nature") or our environment/surroundings ("nurture") influence and shape us.

Correct answer:

A debate about the degree to which our inherited genetic and biological qualities ("nature") or our environment/surroundings ("nurture") influence and shape us.

Explanation:

"Nature vs. nurture" refers to a long-standing debate about the degree to which our inherited genetic and biological qualities ("nature") or our environment/surroundings ("nurture") influence and shape us. It is generally agreed upon that both influence our behavior in differing ways, but there is still theoretical controversy as to how much each one does. 

Example Question #6 : Genetics

Which of the following conditions does the 5-TT gene play a role in?

Possible Answers:

Anxiety

Dementia

OCD

Depression

Paranoid schizophrenia 

Correct answer:

Depression

Explanation:

The 5-TT gene has been shown to play a role in depression due to its influence on serotonin levels. In a research study, it was found that those with a shorter 5-TT gene were more prone to become depressed after a stressful event compared to those with a longer 5-TT gene. It is difficult to say it is directly linked however, since a strict cause-effect relationship has not been definitively proven, but a strong correlation has been indicated.

Example Question #7 : Genetics

Which of the following is a psychological disorder that can be inherited due to genetics?

Possible Answers:

Autism

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Manic Depression

Schizophrenia

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

A host of family, twin, and adoption studies have shown that all of the disorders provided as answer choices share a hereditary component. Other mental illnesses such as major depression and panic disorder have also shown indications of genetic influence. Genetics will play a role in virtually any disease, but due to the complex nature of the brain and environmental factors, the direct genetic factors influencing psychological disorders are difficult to pinpoint.

Example Question #8 : Genetics

Blue eyes (b) are a recessive trait, while brown eyes (B) are dominant.

John has brown eyes, but carries the gene for blue eyes as well. Which of the following could be John's genotype?

Possible Answers:

None of these

Bb

bb

Any of these

BB

Correct answer:

Bb

Explanation:

Because John's phenotype is brown eyes and brown eyes are dominant, his genotype must be either BB or Bb. However, because we know he carries the gene for blue eyes as well, one of his alleles must be a b (small b). The only genotype that fits these conditions is Bb.

Example Question #9 : Genetics

Which of the following are made up of genes?

Possible Answers:

Chromatin 

Genome 

DNA

Chromosomes

Centromeres  

Correct answer:

Chromosomes

Explanation:

DNA creates a code or blueprint for genes. Genes group together and condense in order to create chromosomes. Genome would be an incorrect answer because it refers to an organism’s entire DNA sequence. Centromeres would also be incorrect as an answer because it is a part of the chromosome. This is the point on a chromosome that will attach to spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis.

Example Question #10 : Genetics

Which of the following describes the difference between fraternal and identical twins?

Possible Answers:

Fraternal twins are from two fertilized eggs and identical twins are from one fertilized egg

Fraternal twins have the same genome and identical twins have similar genomes. 

Fraternal twins are from one fertilized egg and identical twins are from two fertilized eggs

None of these

Fraternal twins have the same genes and identical twins have similar genes

Correct answer:

Fraternal twins are from two fertilized eggs and identical twins are from one fertilized egg

Explanation:

Identical twins come from a monozygotic egg—one egg that's been fertilized and then splits into two. They come from the same egg and sperm; therefore, they will be genetically identical. Fraternal twins come from dizygotic fertilized eggs - two separate eggs, each fertilized by its own sperm. This renders two children that will not be genetically identical (i.e. normal siblings with the same parents).

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