AP Psychology : Endocrine System

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Endocrine System

Leptin is a hormone released by fat cells that functions to __________.

Possible Answers:

create sensations of pain

regulate appetite

decrease metabolism

increase metabolism

create sensations of hunger

Correct answer:

regulate appetite

Explanation:

Also known as the "starvation hormone", leptin signals the hypothalamus that the body has enough fat stored to function normally. When leptin levels are high enough, appetite is inhibited. When leptin levels are low, it indicates that we need to consume more food and appetite increases.

Example Question #2 : Endocrine System

Which hormone is most closesly associated with stress?

Possible Answers:

Oxytocin

Testosterone

Melatonin

Insulin

Cortisol

Correct answer:

Cortisol

Explanation:

Cortisol is released by the adrenal cortex, which is controlled by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. The hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone, triggering the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the anterior pituitary gland. ACTH stimulates the release of cortisol. Cortisol is released when the body is under long-term stress, such as malnutrition, dehydration, or prolonged mental stress.

Example Question #3 : Endocrine System

Which neurohormone, secreted by the pineal gland, is involved with mood, anxiety, and sleep?

Possible Answers:

Norepinephrine

Endorphins

Dopamine

Acetylcholine

Serotonin

Correct answer:

Serotonin

Explanation:

The pineal gland secretes serotonin by day and converts it to melatonin at night. These chemicals affect mood, anxiety, and sleep. The pineal gland may also play a role in seasonal affective disorder, in which people are depressed during the darker days of winter. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drug that work to elevate mood by blocking the cells that breakdown serotonin, leaving it in the synapses of the nervous system for a longer period of time.

Dopamine has a neuromuscular function, as an absence is associated with Parkinson's disease. Norepinephrine has a stimulatory effect. Acetylcholine stimulates muscle cells to contract. Endorphins are the body's natural pain relievers. 

Example Question #4 : Endocrine System

Which hormone is most closely associated with activating the "fight or flight" response?

Possible Answers:

Norepinephrine

Estrogen

Melatonin

Epinephrine

Testosterone

Correct answer:

Epinephrine

Explanation:

Epinephrine, also called adrenaline, is a hormone that activates the sympathetic nervous system. This triggers our "fight or flight" response, which increases heart rate, dilates the pupil, increases blood flow to skeletal muscle, and reduces digestive and reproductive activity.

Example Question #5 : Endocrine System

The pituitary gland can be described as _________.

Possible Answers:

A small, non-vital gland in the endocrine system

The "master gland" of the endocrine system

The part of the brainstem situated just above the spinal chord

The gland that regulates the flow of liquid out of the skull

A gland used to detoxify the body

Correct answer:

The "master gland" of the endocrine system

Explanation:

The pituitary gland is considered the "master gland" of the endocrine system. Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help regulate growth, metabolism, and numerous other bodily functions and processes. The medulla oblongata is the part of the brainstem located just above the spinal chord. 

Example Question #6 : Endocrine System

What is the role of hormones secreted by the thymus?

Possible Answers:

To ensure the person develops a digestive system, particularly during young to late adulthood 

To ensure the person develops a digestive system, particularly during puberty

To ensure the person develops a healthy immune system, particularly during puberty

To ensure the person develops healthy skin and nails, particularly during puberty

To ensure the person develops a healthy immune system, particularly during late adulthood

Correct answer:

To ensure the person develops a healthy immune system, particularly during puberty

Explanation:

The thymus, located in the chest, is primarily responsible for secreting hormones involved with healthy immune system development. This development happens during puberty and continues afterwards.

Example Question #7 : Endocrine System

The endocrine system links the brain to __________.

Possible Answers:

the centers of white and red cell reproduction

the gastrointestinal tract, bowels, and reproductive organs

None of these answers are correct 

the organs that control growth and development, reproduction, and body metabolism

the organs involved in digestion 

Correct answer:

the organs that control growth and development, reproduction, and body metabolism

Explanation:

The endocrine system is a system of glands that secretes hormones into the circulatory system. These hormones are directed to organs that control growth and development, reproduction, and body metabolism. It is a system that links the brain to these organs. 

Example Question #8 : Endocrine System

Which of the following are glands controlled by the endocrine system? 

Possible Answers:

Pituitary gland 

All of these

Ovaries and testes

Thyroid 

Pineal gland

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

The endocrine system is a system of glands that secretes hormones into the circulatory system. These glands include the ovaries and testes, the pituitary gland, the thyroid, and pineal glands and many others, all of which control growth and development, reproduction, and body metabolism.

Example Question #9 : Endocrine System

Which of the following is a disease related to the endocrine system? 

Possible Answers:

Cancer

Celiac disease

None of these

Thyroid disease

Sore throat

Correct answer:

Thyroid disease

Explanation:

The endocrine system, in tandem with the central nervous system and immune system, plays a central role in maintaining a state of homeostasis throughout the body. Diseases of the endocrine system are, however, common and include diseases of the thyroid and diabetes mellitus. 

Example Question #10 : Endocrine System

Which of the following hormones do ovaries produce?

Possible Answers:

Just estrogen

Progesterone and estrogen

Testosterone and adrenaline

Just progesterone

Adrenaline and estrogen

Correct answer:

Progesterone and estrogen

Explanation:

The ovaries, an essential part of the female reproductive system, are responsible for producing estrogen and progesterone. 

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