AP Psychology : Biology of Sleep

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Biology Of Sleep

In which stage of sleep do we typically dream?

Possible Answers:

Stage 2 

Stage 1

REM sleep

Stage 3

Stage 4

Correct answer:

REM sleep

Explanation:

REM sleep (REM stands for "rapid eye movement") is the stage of sleep in which we dream. As the name suggests, our eyes move rapidly in different directions while in this stage. The other 4 stages of sleep are called "non-REM" sleep.

Example Question #2 : Biology Of Sleep

What does a delta wave on an EEG scan signify?

Possible Answers:

A painful sensation experienced during the reading

The accessing of spatial information

An extreme emotion, such as anger or sadness, occurring at the time of the reading

The subject is working through a problem involving math

Slow wave sleep, or non-rapid-eye-movement sleep

Correct answer:

Slow wave sleep, or non-rapid-eye-movement sleep

Explanation:

A delta wave is a wave with a high amplitude (height on graph) and has a frequency of 0-4 Hz (fairly slow). Delta waves are helpful to note on a scan because they can help characterize how deeply a person is sleeping; in certain disorders (such as alcoholism) delta waves are disrupted by other wave forms, showing that a person is not getting the type of rest required by the body. 

Example Question #3 : Biology Of Sleep

What stage of sleep is most strongly associated with dreaming?

Possible Answers:

REM

Stage 1

Stage 4

Stage 2

Stage 3

Correct answer:

REM

Explanation:

Rapid-eye movement (REM) is the stage during which most dreaming occurs. It is the last stage in the cycle of sleep and gets longer and more frequent the longer you sleep.

Example Question #4 : Biology Of Sleep

Which hormone is most closely associated with sleep?

Possible Answers:

Oxytocin

Testosterone

Adrenaline

Melatonin

Estrogen

Correct answer:

Melatonin

Explanation:

Melatonin is released by the pineal gland in response to circadian rhythms and other environmental clues, like darkness. It causes drowsiness and helps induce sleep.

Example Question #5 : Biology Of Sleep

During which stage of sleep do night terrors occur?

Possible Answers:

Stage 1

Stage 4

Stage 3

Stage 2

REM Sleep

Correct answer:

Stage 4

Explanation:

Night terrors are characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified. Stage 4 is our deepest sleep stage, so it is difficult for those with night terrors to escape their terror by waking up (unlike nightmares).

Example Question #6 : Biology Of Sleep

Which brain waves are associated with deep sleep?

Possible Answers:

Alpha waves

Iota waves

Delta waves

Beta waves

Gamma waves

Correct answer:

Delta waves

Explanation:

Delta waves occur during deep sleep (stage 4) and are associated with dreaming. In contrast, alpha waves are relatively slow brain waves that occur during a relaxed, awake state.

Example Question #7 : Biology Of Sleep

What is the average amount of sleep adults get each night?

Possible Answers:

8 hours

6 hours

10 hours

7 hours

Correct answer:

8 hours

Explanation:

The average amount of sleep an adult gets is 8 hours. Everyone is different, however; where some adults function off of 6 hours, others need at least 9 hours or more to feel healthy and awake.

Example Question #8 : Biology Of Sleep

What functions are directly related to circadian rhythm?

Possible Answers:

Heart, intestinal, and skin health

Blood pressure, metabolism, and body temperature

Mental functioning, hormones, and physical fitness

Hair and skin health, weight, and muscle restoration

Correct answer:

Blood pressure, metabolism, and body temperature

Explanation:

Circadian rythm is responsible for the cycles of our blood pressure, metabolism, and body temperature. It contributes to our levels of energy throughout the day and is responsible for our descension in sleepiness as night falls. 

Example Question #9 : Biology Of Sleep

What is stage 2 of the sleep cycle?

Possible Answers:

5-10 minute phase, during which we can be easily awakened

None of these

Phase 2 sleep happens 90 minutes after you fall asleep and corresponds to deep, resorative REM sleep

Light sleep phase, during which a drop in body temperature occurs

Correct answer:

Light sleep phase, during which a drop in body temperature occurs

Explanation:

After stage 1, which lasts about 5-10 minutes, is stage 2 during which we slowly enter deep sleep. This stage is still considered light sleep, corresponds to a drop in body temperature. We can still be woken up fairly easily. Stage 3 is when we enter heavier, deep sleep.

Example Question #10 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following can occur during REM sleep?

Possible Answers:

Quickened breathing

Intense dreams 

All of these

Quickened heart rate

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

REM is arguably the most important stage of sleep, and it is the last stage of our sleep cycle until it repeats all over again. Due to the heightened activity in our brains, we may have more intense dreams during this period. Also during this time, our heart rate and breathing quickens, and our body restores itself.

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