AP Psychology : Biological and Cognitive Factors

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

What is context-dependent memory?

Possible Answers:

Information is best remembered when it is taught by a dominant figure to subordinates

Information is best remembered when it is included on a list with other meaningless terms

Information is best remembered when the weather matches the mood of the information being learned

Information is best remembered if it is encoded and recalled in the same location

Information is best remembered when the context is indistinct from other contexts

Correct answer:

Information is best remembered if it is encoded and recalled in the same location

Explanation:

Context-dependent memory is a theory that suggests that information is optimally remembered when it is recalled in the same place in which it was initially learned. So, this theory suggests that you will do best on an exam when you take it in the same classroom where you learned that information! 

Example Question #2 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

Why do we tend to remember information better when it is presented at the end of a list?

Possible Answers:

Our brains are only equipped to remember a couple things about each topic

There is a shorter amount of time to forget the words

More memorable words are usually placed at the end of a list

This recency effect is only true if a list is longer than 30 words

Most people pay more attention to the end of a list

Correct answer:

There is a shorter amount of time to forget the words

Explanation:

The recency effect occurs because there is less time to forget the words at the end of a list, as opposed to words at the beginning or in the middle of a list.

Example Question #3 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

Which stage of memory processing has the shortest duration?

Possible Answers:

Working memory

Sensory store

Long-term memory

Short-term memory

Rehearsal

Correct answer:

Sensory store

Explanation:

The sensory store is the first step of perception. It gathers all of the sensory information that is coming in through the five senses. Attention towards particular stimuli brings them out of the sensory store and into working memory/short-term memory. The rest of the sensory infomation decays very rapidly.

Example Question #2 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

Which statement(s) is true?

I. Crystallized intelligence is a measure of achievement/IQ

II. Crystallized intelligence is a measure of how quickly one is able to learn 

III. Fluid intelligence is a measure of achievement/IQ

IV. Fluid intelligence is a measure of how quickly one is able to learn

V. There is no difference between crystallized and fluid intelligence

Possible Answers:

III only

V only 

II and III

I only

I and IV 

Correct answer:

I and IV 

Explanation:

Crystallized intelligence is a measure of achievement, which can be tested by an IQ test. It includes facts and knowledge.

Fluid intelligence is a measure of how quickly an individual is able to learn. This cannot be tested on an IQ test. Fluid intelligence is often used as an indicator of future performance or academic potential.  

Example Question #3 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

What is the average IQ of an 9-year-old child?

Possible Answers:

50

100

90

Greater than 130

130

Correct answer:

100

Explanation:

The formula for IQ is:

This allows for a score of 100 to be the average regardless of age. A 9-year-old who has a mental age of 9 has an IQ of 100. A 9-year-old who has the mental age of an 8-year-old has an IQ of 89. Thanks to this formula, it can be assumed that the average citizen has an IQ of 100, regardless of age.

Example Question #4 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

What is the expression for calculating IQ?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

The formula for IQ is:

This allows for a score of 100 to be the average regardless of age. A 9-year-old who has a mental age of 9 has an IQ of 100. A 9-year-old who has the mental age of an 8-year-old has an IQ of 89. Thanks to this formula, it can be assumed that the average citizen has an IQ of 100.  

Example Question #5 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

Which of the following is an example of a respondent behavior?

Possible Answers:

Choosing "C" on a multiple choice exam as a guess

Discussing your personal finances with a bank teller

Sneezing after coughing

Asking a friend for help

The "knee-jerk" reflex when a doctor hits your knee

Correct answer:

The "knee-jerk" reflex when a doctor hits your knee

Explanation:

Respondent behaviors occur as automatic responsees to stimuli. For example, dogs salivate in response to food, so the salivation is a respondent behavior. Additionally, the knee-jerk reflex is a popular example of a respondent behavior in humans.

Example Question #6 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

In Albert Bandura's "Bobo doll" experiment, in which children watched the interactions between adults and a clown doll, the children who watched adults behave aggressively toward Bobo were more likely to __________.

Possible Answers:

play gently with Bobo and feel sympathetic toward him.

ask questions about why the adults behaved that way.

act aggressively toward Bobo themselves.

avoid Bobo completely out of fear.

Correct answer:

act aggressively toward Bobo themselves.

Explanation:

In accordance with Bandura's social-learning theory, children who witnessed the aggressive behavior also acted aggressively toward the doll. The experiment also included an element of having the children watch the adults being rewarded, punished, or not experience any consequence whatsoever.

Example Question #7 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

Which of the following statements is/are true of the differences between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence?

I. Fluid intelligence tends to decrease as we age, while crystallized intelligence tends to hold steady or even increase

II. Fluid intelligence tends to increase as we age, while crystallized intelligence tends to hold steady or even decrease

III. Fluid intelligence concerns the ability to acquire new information and skills, while crystallized intelligence deals with knowledge previously acquired

Possible Answers:

III only

II only

I only

II and III

I and III

Correct answer:

I and III

Explanation:

Fluid intelligence concerns the ability to solve abstract problems and to use new information effectively, and tends to decrease as we age. Crystallized intelligence involves the use of information recalled from previous education and experience, and does not decrease with age (and may even get better as we get older). Statements I and III are both true.

Example Question #10 : Biological And Cognitive Factors

An important distinction regarding the behavioral approach to studying learning is that it emphasizes which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Observable behaviors, antecedent stimuli, and consequences

Information-processing procedures of the mind

All of these

The underlying biological basis for learning and memory

Correct answer:

Observable behaviors, antecedent stimuli, and consequences

Explanation:

The definition of a behavioral approach is that all of the components can be observed, and no subjective inquiry is required. In this methodology, something happens to provoke learning (antecedent stimuli), an observable behavior occurs, and a consequence follows. An example of this process could be a toddler touching a hot stove, recoiling its hand, and never touching the stove again. The process of learning can be clearly explained through observation alone, without delving into how the information was processed in the toddler’s mind, or searching for the underlying biological basis for the learned behavior.

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