AP Latin : Syntax in Vergil

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

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Example Questions

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Example Question #71 : Syllabus Passages

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

The underlined word "gemini" in line 4 refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

Sollemnis

Orbibus

Angues

Alta

Correct answer:

Angues

Explanation:

The word "gemini" in line 4 is nominative plural. Since the only nominative plural word in this sentence is "angues," we know it must be describing "angues."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #1 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

What is the subject of "aestuat" (line 3)?

Possible Answers:

Vasta

Caeno

Turbidus

Gurges

Correct answer:

Gurges

Explanation:

The subject of "aestuat" is "gurges." "Gurges" comes from "gurges, gurgitis." It is the only noun in the nominative case. "Turbidus" is an adjective describing "gurges," so it is not the subject itself, and "vasto" and "caeno" are both in the ablative case.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #2 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

What is the case of "flumina" (line 4)?

Possible Answers:

Accusative

Ablative

Vocative

Nominative

Correct answer:

Accusative

Explanation:

"Flumina" comes from the word "flumen, fluminis," a neuter third-declension noun. Here, it is acting as the object of "servat," so it is in the accusative case.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #3 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

"Cui" in line 5 refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

Charon

gurges

Cocyto

flumina

Correct answer:

Charon

Explanation:

From context, we know that "cui" must refer to Charon. At this point in the passage, the author is describing the appearance of Charon.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #4 : Syntax In Vergil

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

What is the case of "parentum" (line 14)?

Possible Answers:

Genitive

Nominative

Dative

Accusative

Correct answer:

Genitive

Explanation:

"Parentum" comes from the third declension noun "parens, parentis." "Parentum" is the genitive plural form.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #5 : Syntax In Vergil

Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
Italiam, fato profugus, Laviniaque venit
litora, multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
vi superum saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram;
multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem,               5
inferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum,
Albanique patres, atque altae moenia Romae.

Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus
insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores               10
impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

What is the main verb of the sentence "Musa . . . impulerit" (lines 8 -11)?

Possible Answers:

Pietate

Impulerit

Dolens

Volvere

Correct answer:

Impulerit

Explanation:

The main verb of this sentence, which governs all the other verbs, is "impulerit."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.1-12)

Example Question #77 : Syllabus Passages

Aeneas miratus enim motusque tumultu
'dic,' ait, 'o virgo, quid vult concursus ad amnem?
quidve petunt animae? vel quo discrimine ripas
hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt?'              
olli sic breviter fata est longaeva sacerdos:                      5
'Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles,
Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem,
di cuius iurare timent et fallere numen.
haec omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba est . . .

"Dic" (line 2) translates as which of the following?

Possible Answers:

He says

She tells

Tell

They told

Correct answer:

Tell

Explanation:

The form "dic" comes from the verb "dico, dicere, dixi, dictus," and is the imperative form (command). The most appropriate translation here is tell.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.317-325)

Example Question #78 : Syllabus Passages

Aeneas miratus enim motusque tumultu
'dic,' ait, 'o virgo, quid vult concursus ad amnem?
quidve petunt animae? vel quo discrimine ripas
hae linquunt, illae remis vada livida verrunt?'              
olli sic breviter fata est longaeva sacerdos:                      5
'Anchisa generate, deum certissima proles,
Cocyti stagna alta vides Stygiamque paludem,
di cuius iurare timent et fallere numen.
haec omnis, quam cernis, inops inhumataque turba est . . .

What is the role of "deum" in line 6?

Possible Answers:

Genitive describing "proles"

Genitive describing "Cocyti"

Accusative place where

Direct object of "vides"

Correct answer:

Direct object of "vides"

Explanation:

"Deum" is in the accusative case because it is acting as the object of the verb "vides."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.317-325)

Example Question #79 : Syllabus Passages

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido               
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,                   5
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:               
'infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,               10
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.  

The "-que" in line 3 connects which of the following?

Possible Answers:

"Agnovit" and "primum"

"Agnovit" and "stetit"

"Agnovit" and "umbras"

"Agnovit" and "iuxta"

Correct answer:

"Agnovit" and "stetit"

Explanation:

The enclitic "-que" acts as a connector of the word it is attached to and a word that precedes it. "-Que" is being used to connect two actions in this sentence: "agnovit" and "stetit."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.450-460)

Example Question #80 : Syllabus Passages

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido               
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,                   5
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:               
'infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,               10
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.  

What is the case of "infelix" in line 7?

Possible Answers:

Vocative

Ablative

Accusative

Nominative

Correct answer:

Vocative

Explanation:

The word "infelix" is in the vocative case. We know this because Dido is speaking to herself at this point in the passage. She is referring to herself by name; this is an example of direct address, which is always in the vocative case in Latin. Since "infelix" is being used to describe Dido, it must also be in the vocative case.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.450-460)

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