AP Latin : Metonymy

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Semantic Devices

Hinc via Tartarei quae fert Acherontis ad undas.              
turbidus hic caeno vastaque voragine gurges
aestuat atque omnem Cocyto eructat harenam.
Portitor has horrendus aquas et flumina servat
terribili squalore Charon, cui plurima mento                  5
canities inculta iacet, stant lumina flamma,              
sordidus ex umeris nodo dependet amictus.
Ipse ratem conto subigit velisque ministrat
et ferruginea subvectat corpora cumba,
iam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.              10
Huc omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,               
matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita
magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum . . .

The use of "ora" in line 14 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

anastrophe

metonymy

personification

apostrophe

Correct answer:

metonymy

Explanation:

The word "ora" is being used to refer to the faces of the parents in this sentence. This substitution of an attribute or part of something to refer to the whole is called "metonymy."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.295-308)

Example Question #2 : Metonymy

saepe pater dixit: 'generum mihi, filia, debes,'
saepe pater dixit: 'debes mihi, nata, nepotes';
illa velut crimen taedas exosa iugales
pulchra verecundo suffuderat ora rubore
inque patris blandis haerens cervice lacertis                       5
'da mihi perpetua, genitor carissime,' dixit
'virginitate frui! dedit hoc pater ante Dianae.'
ille quidem obsequitur, sed te decor iste quod optas
esse vetat, votoque tuo tua forma repugnat:
Phoebus amat visaeque cupit conubia Daphnes,                 10
quodque cupit, sperat, suaque illum oracula fallunt,
utque leves stipulae demptis adolentur aristis,
ut facibus saepes ardent, quas forte viator
vel nimis admovit vel iam sub luce reliquit,
sic deus in flammas abiit, sic pectore toto                          15
uritur et sterilem sperando nutrit amorem.

The use of "ora" (line 4) is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

Metonymy

Metaphor

Pleonasm

Synchesis

Correct answer:

Metonymy

Explanation:

"Ora," literally translated as mouth, is being used here to refer to the entire face of the girl in this passage. This use of a part of something in order to refer to the whole is an example of metonymy.

(Adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, 1.481-496)

Example Question #3 : Metonymy

Tertia post illam successit aenea proles,               
saevior ingeniis et ad horrida promptior arma,
non scelerata tamen; de duro est ultima ferro.
protinus inrupit venae peioris in aevum
omne nefas: fugere pudor verumque fidesque;             5
in quorum subiere locum fraudesque dolusque               
insidiaeque et vis et amor sceleratus habendi.
vela dabant ventis nec adhuc bene noverat illos
navita, quaeque prius steterant in montibus altis,
fluctibus ignotis insultavere carinae,                              10
communemque prius ceu lumina solis et auras               
cautus humum longo signavit limite mensor.
nec tantum segetes alimentaque debita dives
poscebatur humus, sed itum est in viscera terrae,
quasque recondiderat Stygiisque admoverat umbris,       15
effodiuntur opes, inritamenta malorum.               

The word "vela" in line 8 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

personification

synchesis

metonymy

tmesis

Correct answer:

metonymy

Explanation:

The word "vela" literally means "hides," but translates here as sails. This is because the sails of a ship would be made from hides. This is a common example of metonymy, in which you use a part of something (in this case, the material which the object is made from) to refer to the whole object.

(Passage adapted from Ovid's Metamorphoses, 1.125-141)

Example Question #4 : Metonymy

(1) Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. (2) Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. (3) Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important, (4) proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. (5) Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, vergit ad septentriones. (6) Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. (7) Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.

The word fere in part 4 is an example of _______________.

Possible Answers:

litotes

personification

enjambment

metonymy

Correct answer:

metonymy

Explanation:

The word fere is being used instead of the word sword. This is an example of "metonymy" - when a word is substituted for another in a text. "Enjambment" occurs when a sentence is continued beyond a line without pause (in poetry). "Personification" is giving human traits to non-human things. "Litotes" is using a negative word to express something positive (e.g "He was not unmuscular." Meaning, he was very muscular). The correct choice is " metonymy."

Passage adapted from De Bello Gallico by Caesar, I. 1-7

Example Question #1 : Metonymy

Arma gravi numero violentaque bella parabam
edere, materia conveniente modis.
par erat inferior versus—risisse Cupido
dicitur atque unum surripuisse pedem.
'Quis tibi, saeve puer, dedit hoc in carmina iuris?
Pieridum vates, non tua turba sumus.
quid, si praeripiat flavae Venus arma Minervae,
ventilet accensas flava Minerva faces?
quis probet in silvis Cererem regnare iugosis,
lege pharetratae Virginis arva coli?
crinibus insignem quis acuta cuspide Phoebum
instruat, Aoniam Marte movente lyram?
sunt tibi magna, puer, nimiumque potentia regna;
cur opus adfectas, ambitiose, novum?
an, quod ubique, tuum est? tua sunt Heliconia tempe?

The underlined word "Cererem" in line 9 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

Anaphora

Metonymy

Personification

Hyperbaton

Correct answer:

Metonymy

Explanation:

The word "Cererem" is an example of metonymy. "Ceres" is commonly used to refer to/in place of the word for grain or food. Note: personification is giving human characteristics to non-human things, hyperbaton is the inversion of the usual word order, and anaphora is the repetition of a word for emphasis.

(Passage adapted from Amores by Ovid, I.1–15)

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