AP Latin : Grammatical and Syntactic Terminology in Vergil

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

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Example Question #1 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

"Referens" in line 4 is an example of a __________.

Possible Answers:

future passive participle

perfect passive participle

future active participle

present active participle

Correct answer:

present active participle

Explanation:

All words that end in the "-ns," "-ntis" endings in Latin are examples of present active participles.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #2 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

What is the tense, voice, and mood of "fit" in line 9?

Possible Answers:

Present passive indicative

Present active subjunctive

Future active indicative

Present passive subjunctive

Correct answer:

Present passive indicative

Explanation:

The word "fit" comes from the verb "fio," "fieri," "factus sum," a passive deponent verb (passive form of "facio," "facere"). This is the present active indicative form of that word.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #3 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Laocoon, ductus Neptuno sorte sacerdos,
sollemnis taurum ingentem mactabat ad aras.
Ecce autem gemini a Tenedo tranquilla per alta
(horresco referens) immensis orbibus angues
incumbunt pelago pariterque ad litora tendunt;            5   
pectora quorum inter fluctus arrecta iubaeque
sanguineae superant undas, pars cetera pontum
pone legit sinuatque immensa volumine terga.
Fit sonitus spumante salo; iamque arva tenebant
ardentisque oculos suffecti sanguine et igni                 10
sibila lambebant linguis vibrantibus ora.
Diffugimus visu exsangues. Illi agmine certo
Laocoonta petunt; et primum parva duorum
corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque
implicat et miseros morsu depascitur artus.                15

What is the case of the underlined word "corpora" in line 14?

Possible Answers:

Nominative plural

Nominative singular

Accusative plural

Ablative singular

Correct answer:

Accusative plural

Explanation:

The word "corpora" comes from the third declension, neuter noun "corpus," "corporis." The ending "-a" can only be nominative or accusative plural for words like this. "Corpora" cannot be the subject of this sentence, however, because both of the verbs are singular and it is not referring to any group of things. Therefore, we know that "corpora" must be in the accusative case. In fact, it is the direct object of the verb "implicat."

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 2.201-215)

Example Question #4 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima litora, cursu
contendunt petere, et Libyae vertuntur ad oras.
Est in secessu longo locus: insula portum
efficit obiectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto            
frangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos.

"Cursu" in line 1 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

ablative absolute

ablative of manner

supine

ablative place where

Correct answer:

ablative of manner

Explanation:

The word "cursu" is an example of ablative of manner. The ablative supine is only used with nouns or adjectives, which are not present in this part of the sentence. "Cursu" is in the ablative case because it describes the verb "petere." That is, it describes the way in which the Trojans are seeking (with zeal or in a certain direction) and not the means by which they are seeking and not where they are.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.157-161)

Example Question #5 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

"O fortunati, quorum iam moenia surgunt!"
Aeneas ait, et fastigia suspicit urbis.
Infert se saeptus nebula, mirabile dictu,
per medios, miscetque viris, neque cernitur ulli.

"Mirabile dictu" is an example of a(n) __________.

Possible Answers:

supine phrase

ablative absolute

adjectives

adverb

Correct answer:

supine phrase

Explanation:

"Mirabile dictu" is a common supine phrase that means wonderful to say.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.436-440)

Example Question #6 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Haec dum Dardanio Aeneae miranda videntur,
dum stupet, obtutuque haeret defixus in uno,             
regina ad templum, forma pulcherrima Dido,
incessit magna iuvenum stipante caterva.

"Obtutu" in line 2 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

ablative of manner

nominative subject of "haeret"

supine

accusative direct object

Correct answer:

ablative of manner

Explanation:

The word "obtutu" comes from "obtutus," "obtutus," a fourth declension word. The form of the word is ablative singular, describing the verb "haeret." Therefore, it is ablative of manner.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 1.494-497)

Example Question #7 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit:
'aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis               
ingreditur victorque viros supereminet omnis.
hic rem Romanam magno turbante tumultu
sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,          5
tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.'
atque hic Aeneas (una namque ire videbat               
egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu)
'quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem?           10
filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum?
qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso!  

In line 1, "pater" is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

a direct object

a name

an adjective

an appositive

Correct answer:

an appositive

Explanation:

In this sentence, "pater" is being used to describe Anchises, but is a nominative noun, just like the word "Anchises." When you use one noun to rename another, it is acting as the appositive of that noun.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.854-865)

Example Question #8 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit:
'aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis               
ingreditur victorque viros supereminet omnis.
hic rem Romanam magno turbante tumultu
sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,          5
tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.'
atque hic Aeneas (una namque ire videbat               
egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu)
'quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem?           10
filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum?
qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso!  

"Filius" in line 11 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

tmesis

prolepsis

oxymoron

simile

Correct answer:

prolepsis

Explanation:

The word "filius" appears in this line/sentence much sooner than it normally would. It would make the most sense for "filius" to appear before "magna" in this sentence. This use of a word sooner than expected is called prolepsis.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.854-865)

Example Question #9 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

Sic pater Anchises, atque haec mirantibus addit:
'aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis               
ingreditur victorque viros supereminet omnis.
hic rem Romanam magno turbante tumultu
sistet eques, sternet Poenos Gallumque rebellem,          5
tertiaque arma patri suspendet capta Quirino.'
atque hic Aeneas (una namque ire videbat               
egregium forma iuvenem et fulgentibus armis,
sed frons laeta parum et deiecto lumina vultu)
'quis, pater, ille, virum qui sic comitatur euntem?           10
filius, anne aliquis magna de stirpe nepotum?
qui strepitus circa comitum! quantum instar in ipso!  

The phrase "insignis spoliis opimis" (line 2) is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

ablative of comparison

ablative absolute

ablative of accompaniment

ablative place where

Correct answer:

ablative absolute

Explanation:

In the phrase "insignis spoliis opimis," we have the use of an adjective denoting some sort of action (participle) and a noun in the ablative case in order to indicate a completed action. This is characteristic of an ablative absolute.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.854-865)

Example Question #10 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Vergil

inter quas Phoenissa recens a vulnere Dido               
errabat silva in magna; quam Troius heros
ut primum iuxta stetit agnovitque per umbras
obscuram, qualem primo qui surgere mense
aut videt aut vidisse putat per nubila lunam,                   5
demisit lacrimas dulcique adfatus amore est:               
'infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,               10
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.  

The phrase "per umbras obscuram" (line 3-4) is an example of which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Hysteron Proteron

Pleonasm

Metaphor

Zeugma

Correct answer:

Pleonasm

Explanation:

In lines 3 and 4, Vergil uses the words "per umbras obscuram" to emphasize the difficulty Aeneas is having seeing Dido. She is referred to as "obscuram"—shadowy or barely visible, but, as is stated in the previous lines, we already know that Dido is walking away from Aeneas and that he is viewing her through shadows. The addition of "obscuram" is a little redundant. This redundant or superfluous use of words is an example of pleonasm.

(Passage adapted from the Aeneid by Vergil, 6.450-460)

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