AP Latin : Grammatical and Syntactic Terminology in Prose Passages

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

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Example Questions

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Example Question #566 : Ap Latin Language

     In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas
corpora; di, coeptis (nam vos mutastis et illas)
adspirate meis primaque ab origine mundi
ad mea perpetuum deducite tempora carmen!
     Ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum               5
unus erat toto naturae vultus in orbe,
quem dixere chaos: rudis indigestaque moles
nec quicquam nisi pondus iners congestaque eodem
non bene iunctarum discordia semina rerum.
nullus adhuc mundo praebebat lumina Titan,                         10
nec nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phoebe,
nec circumfuso pendebat in aere tellus
ponderibus librata suis, nec bracchia longo
margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite;
utque erat et tellus illic et pontus et aer,                               15
sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda,
lucis egens aer; nulli sua forma manebat,
obstabatque aliis aliud, quia corpore in uno
frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis,
mollia cum duris, sine pondere, habentia pondus.                  20

What is the case of "di" (line 2)?

Possible Answers:

Genitive

Dative

Vocative

Nominative

Correct answer:

Vocative

Explanation:

The form "di" comes from the word "deus, dei" and is a shortened form of "dei," the nominative and vocative plural form (gods). We know that "di" is vocative because of the imperatives in the sentence. The author is speaking directly to (and commanding) them.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, ln.1-20)

Example Question #567 : Ap Latin Language

     In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas
corpora; di, coeptis (nam vos mutastis et illas)
adspirate meis primaque ab origine mundi
ad mea perpetuum deducite tempora carmen!
     Ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum               5
unus erat toto naturae vultus in orbe,
quem dixere chaos: rudis indigestaque moles
nec quicquam nisi pondus iners congestaque eodem
non bene iunctarum discordia semina rerum.
nullus adhuc mundo praebebat lumina Titan,                         10
nec nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phoebe,
nec circumfuso pendebat in aere tellus
ponderibus librata suis, nec bracchia longo
margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite;
utque erat et tellus illic et pontus et aer,                               15
sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda,
lucis egens aer; nulli sua forma manebat,
obstabatque aliis aliud, quia corpore in uno
frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis,
mollia cum duris, sine pondere, habentia pondus.                  20

In line 4, there is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

litotes

chiasmus

pleonasm

a golden line

Correct answer:

a golden line

Explanation:

Line 4 presents an example of a Golden Line, a very special type of synchesis in the grammatical construction of a sentence. It follows the pattern A-B-V-A-B, where the first A-B of the pattern are adjectives describing the latter A-B of the pattern and separated in the middle by a verb. The words "mea perpetuum deducite tempora carmen" fit this pattern exactly.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, ln.1-20)

Example Question #568 : Ap Latin Language

 In nova fert animus mutatas dicere formas
corpora; di, coeptis (nam vos mutastis et illas)
adspirate meis primaque ab origine mundi
ad mea perpetuum deducite tempora carmen!
     Ante mare et terras et quod tegit omnia caelum               5
unus erat toto naturae vultus in orbe,
quem dixere chaos: rudis indigestaque moles
nec quicquam nisi pondus iners congestaque eodem
non bene iunctarum discordia semina rerum.
nullus adhuc mundo praebebat lumina Titan,                         10
nec nova crescendo reparabat cornua Phoebe,
nec circumfuso pendebat in aere tellus
ponderibus librata suis, nec bracchia longo
margine terrarum porrexerat Amphitrite;
utque erat et tellus illic et pontus et aer,                               15
sic erat instabilis tellus, innabilis unda,
lucis egens aer; nulli sua forma manebat,
obstabatque aliis aliud, quia corpore in uno
frigida pugnabant calidis, umentia siccis,
mollia cum duris, sine pondere, habentia pondus.                  20

What is the case of "mare" (line 5)?

Possible Answers:

Ablative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Correct answer:

Accusative

Explanation:

The word "mare" comes from "mare, maris," a third declension neuter word. This is the accusative form of that word. It must be accusative because it is the object of "ante," which only takes the accusative case.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, ln.1-20)

Example Question #569 : Ap Latin Language

Primus amor Phoebi Daphne Peneia, quem non
fors ignara dedit, sed saeva Cupidinis ira,
Delius hunc nuper, victa serpente superbus,
viderat adducto flectentem cornua nervo              
'quid' que 'tibi, lascive puer, cum fortibus armis?'               5
dixerat: 'ista decent umeros gestamina nostros,
qui dare certa ferae, dare vulnera possumus hosti,
qui modo pestifero tot iugera ventre prementem
stravimus innumeris tumidum Pythona sagittis.               
tu face nescio quos esto contentus amores                       10
inritare tua, nec laudes adsere nostras!'
filius huic Veneris 'figat tuus omnia, Phoebe,
te meus arcus' ait; 'quantoque animalia cedunt
cuncta deo, tanto minor est tua gloria nostra.'

The words "victa serpente" in line 3 is an example of __________.

Possible Answers:

exclamation

gerundive

ablative absolute

infinitive

Correct answer:

ablative absolute

Explanation:

The phrase "victa serpente" is translated as with the serpent defeated and is an example of an ablative absolute. The ablative absolute is typically formed with a participle/adjective + a noun, which are both in the ablative case.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, 1.452-465)

Example Question #570 : Ap Latin Language

Saepe pater dixit: 'generum mihi, filia, debes,'
saepe pater dixit: 'debes mihi, nata, nepotes';
illa velut crimen taedas exosa iugales
pulchra verecundo suffuderat ora rubore
inque patris blandis haerens cervice lacertis                       5
'da mihi perpetua, genitor carissime,' dixit
'virginitate frui! dedit hoc pater ante Dianae.'
ille quidem obsequitur, sed te decor iste quod optas
esse vetat, votoque tuo tua forma repugnat:
Phoebus amat visaeque cupit conubia Daphnes,                 10
quodque cupit, sperat, suaque illum oracula fallunt,
utque leves stipulae demptis adolentur aristis,
ut facibus saepes ardent, quas forte viator
vel nimis admovit vel iam sub luce reliquit,
sic deus in flammas abiit, sic pectore toto                          15
uritur et sterilem sperando nutrit amorem.

In line 3, there is an example of which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Metaphor

Synchesis

Metonymy

Simile

Correct answer:

Simile

Explanation:

The word "velut" translates as just as. Line 3 is comparing the father's words from lines 1 and 2 to that of a crime. It is a simile.

(Adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, 1.481-496)

Example Question #1 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Prose Passages

Pallas anum simulat: falsosque in tempora canos
addit et infirmos, baculo quos sustinet, artus.
tum sic orsa loqui 'non omnia grandior aetas,
quae fugiamus, habet: seris venit usus ab annis.
consilium ne sperne meum: tibi fama petatur               5
inter mortales faciendae maxima lanae;
cede deae veniamque tuis, temeraria, dictis
supplice voce roga: veniam dabit illa roganti.'
adspicit hanc torvis inceptaque fila relinquit
vixque manum retinens confessaque vultibus iram       10
talibus obscuram resecuta est Pallada dictis:
'mentis inops longaque venis confecta senecta,
et nimium vixisse diu nocet. audiat istas,
si qua tibi nurus est, si qua est tibi filia, voces;
consilii satis est in me mihi, neve monendo                  15
profecisse putes, eadem est sententia nobis.
cur non ipsa venit? cur haec certamina vitat?'

What part of speech is "faciendae" in line 6?

Possible Answers:

Gerund

Perfect passive participle

Gerundive

Present active participle

Correct answer:

Gerundive

Explanation:

The "-nd-" in "faciendae" should be a giveaway that the word should be either a gerund or gerundive. Gerunds, however, only have masculine singular endings (second declension) and acts as a noun, so this word could only be a gerundive, since it is an adjective.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, VI.26-42)

Example Question #2 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Prose Passages

Pallas anum simulat: falsosque in tempora canos
addit et infirmos, baculo quos sustinet, artus.
tum sic orsa loqui 'non omnia grandior aetas,
quae fugiamus, habet: seris venit usus ab annis.
consilium ne sperne meum: tibi fama petatur               5
inter mortales faciendae maxima lanae;
cede deae veniamque tuis, temeraria, dictis
supplice voce roga: veniam dabit illa roganti.'
adspicit hanc torvis inceptaque fila relinquit
vixque manum retinens confessaque vultibus iram       10
talibus obscuram resecuta est Pallada dictis:
'mentis inops longaque venis confecta senecta,
et nimium vixisse diu nocet. audiat istas,
si qua tibi nurus est, si qua est tibi filia, voces;
consilii satis est in me mihi, neve monendo                  15
profecisse putes, eadem est sententia nobis.
cur non ipsa venit? cur haec certamina vitat?'

Why is "audiat" (line 13) subjunctive?

Possible Answers:

Result clause

Jussive

Optative

Potential

Correct answer:

Potential

Explanation:

The word "audiat" indicates the potential that the girl would listen to Minerva's words, provided the conditions she states in her retort are met. This is the potential use of the subjunctive.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, VI.26-42)

Example Question #3 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Prose Passages

Pyramus et Thisbe, iuvenum pulcherrimus alter,               
altera, quas Oriens habuit, praelata puellis,
contiguas tenuere domos, ubi dicitur altam
coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis urbem.
notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit,                             5
tempore crevit amor; taedae quoque iure coissent,              
sed vetuere patres: quod non potuere vetare,
ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus ambo.
conscius omnis abest; nutu signisque loquuntur,
quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis.              10
fissus erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim,               
cum fieret, paries domui communis utrique.
id vitium nulli per saecula longa notatum -
quid non sentit amor? - primi vidistis amantes
et vocis fecistis iter, tutaeque per illud                              15
murmure blanditiae minimo transire solebant.               

What case is "iuvenum" (line 1)?

Possible Answers:

Nominative

Accusative

Dative

Genitive

Correct answer:

Genitive

Explanation:

The word "iuvenum" comes from "iuvenis, iuvenis." "Iuvenum" is the genitive plural form.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, IV.55-70)

Example Question #4 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Prose Passages

Pyramus et Thisbe, iuvenum pulcherrimus alter,               
altera, quas Oriens habuit, praelata puellis,
contiguas tenuere domos, ubi dicitur altam
coctilibus muris cinxisse Semiramis urbem.
notitiam primosque gradus vicinia fecit,                             5
tempore crevit amor; taedae quoque iure coissent,              
sed vetuere patres: quod non potuere vetare,
ex aequo captis ardebant mentibus ambo.
conscius omnis abest; nutu signisque loquuntur,
quoque magis tegitur, tectus magis aestuat ignis.              10
fissus erat tenui rima, quam duxerat olim,               
cum fieret, paries domui communis utrique.
id vitium nulli per saecula longa notatum -
quid non sentit amor? - primi vidistis amantes
et vocis fecistis iter, tutaeque per illud                              15
murmure blanditiae minimo transire solebant.               

"Cinxisse" (line 4) is an example of which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Infinitive

Gerund

Subjunctive Verb

Participle

Correct answer:

Infinitive

Explanation:

The word "cinxisse" makes use of the perfect stem of "cingo, cingere, cinxi, cinctus," and has an "-isse" ending. This is how you form the perfect infinitive.

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, IV.55-70)

Example Question #5 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Prose Passages

Ecce cruentati redeunt et, Bacchus ubi esset,
quaerenti domino Bacchum vidisse negarunt;
'hunc' dixere 'tamen comitem famulumque sacrorum
cepimus' et tradunt manibus post terga ligatis              
sacra dei quendam Tyrrhena gente secutum.                       5
adspicit hunc Pentheus oculis, quos ira tremendos
fecerat, et quamquam poenae vix tempora differt,
'o periture tuaque aliis documenta dature
morte,' ait, 'ede tuum nomen nomenque parentum               
et patriam, morisque novi cur sacra frequentes!'                  10
ille metu vacuus 'nomen mihi' dixit 'Acoetes,
patria Maeonia est, humili de plebe parentes.
non mihi quae duri colerent pater arva iuvenci,
lanigerosve greges, non ulla armenta reliquit;              
pauper et ipse fuit linoque solebat et hamis                         15
decipere et calamo salientis ducere pisces.

What part of speech is "tremendos" in line 6?

Possible Answers:

Gerund

Noun

Gerundive

Verb

Correct answer:

Gerundive

Explanation:

The word "tremendos" comes from the verb "tremo," "tremere," "tremui." This is the gerundive form of that verb. We know it must be a gerundive instead of a gerund because the word has an -os ending (gerunds only have 2nd person singular endings and -os is plural).

(Passage adapted from Metamorphoses by Ovid, III 570-586) 

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