AP Latin : Grammatical and Syntactic Terminology in Caesar

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Caesar

After being warned of an imminent attack by the Gauls, Caesar’s men debate whether to stay in their camp or attempt to join another unit.

1 Lucius Aurunculeius compluresque tribuni militum et primorum ordinum

2 centuriones nihil temere agendum neque ex hibernis iniussu Caesaris

3 discedendum existimabant: quantasvis [magnas] copias etiam Germanorum

4 sustineri posse munitis hibernis docebant: rem esse testimonio, quod

5 primum hostium impetum multis ultro vulneribus illatis fortissime 

6 sustinuerint: re frumentaria non premi; interea et ex proximis hibernis et a 

7 Caesare conventura subsidia: postremo quid esse levius aut turpius, quam

8 auctore hoste de summis rebus capere consilium?

What is the grammatical function of the phrase "multis…vulneribus illatis" in line 5?

Possible Answers:

Ablative of means

Dative of disadvantage

Indirect statement

Ablative absolute

Correct answer:

Ablative absolute

Explanation:

Since all of these words would have to be in the ablative or dative, we can eliminate “indirect statement” (which requires a head verb, accusative, and infinitive). We can eliminate “dative of disadvantage” because the rest of the sentence provides no reason for words in the dative case. We are left with the two ablatives. Because the phrase includes a participle and refers to a circumstance accompanying the sentence, “ablative absolute” is correct. An ablative of means is usually a simple noun or a noun adjective pair. In addition, the phrase does not express means, but an accompanying circumstance.

(Passage adapted from Gallic Wars, 5:28)

Example Question #2 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Caesar

(1) Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. (2) Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. (3) Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important, (4) proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. (5) Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, vergit ad septentriones. (6) Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. (7) Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.

Cultu (part 3) is an example of a(n) _______________.

Possible Answers:

Imperative Verb

Ablative Case Noun

Supine

Perfect Passive Participle

Correct answer:

Ablative Case Noun

Explanation:

The word cultu comes from the noun cultus, cultus, which means "civilization." It is a 4th declension noun, so -u is the ablative singular form. The correct choice is "Ablative Case Noun."

Passage adapted from De Bello Gallico by Caesar, I. 1-7

Example Question #3 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Caesar

(1) Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus Orgetorix. Is M. Messala, [et P.] M. Pisone consulibus regni cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit et civitati persuasit ut de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent:(2) perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praestarent, totius Galliae imperio potiri. (3) Id hoc facilius iis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur: una ex parte flumine Rheno latissimo atque altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit; altera ex parte monte Iura altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios; tertia lacu Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, qui provinciam nostram ab Helvetiis dividit. (4) His rebus fiebat ut et minus late vagarentur et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre possent; (5) qua ex parte homines bellandi cupidi magno dolore adficiebantur. (6) Pro multitudine autem hominum et pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis angustos se fines habere arbitrabantur, qui in longitudinem milia passuum CCXL, in latitudinem CLXXX patebant.

What part of speech is facilius (part 3)?

Possible Answers:

Noun

Adverb

Adjective

Participle

Correct answer:

Adverb

Explanation:

The word facilius comes from the adjective facilis, is, e. When the ending of adjectives is changed to -ius, this makes the word an adverb. "Adverb" is the correct choice.

Passage adapted from De Bello Gallico by Caesar, I. 2.1-6

Example Question #4 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Caesar

(1) Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus Orgetorix. Is M. Messala, [et P.] M. Pisone consulibus regni cupiditate inductus coniurationem nobilitatis fecit et civitati persuasit ut de finibus suis cum omnibus copiis exirent:(2) perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praestarent, totius Galliae imperio potiri. (3) Id hoc facilius iis persuasit, quod undique loci natura Helvetii continentur: una ex parte flumine Rheno latissimo atque altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis dividit; altera ex parte monte Iura altissimo, qui est inter Sequanos et Helvetios; tertia lacu Lemanno et flumine Rhodano, qui provinciam nostram ab Helvetiis dividit. (4) His rebus fiebat ut et minus late vagarentur et minus facile finitimis bellum inferre possent; (5) qua ex parte homines bellandi cupidi magno dolore adficiebantur. (6) Pro multitudine autem hominum et pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis angustos se fines habere arbitrabantur, qui in longitudinem milia passuum CCXL, in latitudinem CLXXX patebant.

What is the voice and mood of fiebat (part 4)?

Possible Answers:

Passive Indicative

None of these

Passive Subjunctive

Active Indicative

Correct answer:

Passive Indicative

Explanation:

The word fiebat comes from fio, fieri/feri, which is the passive form of the verb facio, facere. Therefore, this word is passive and indicative.

Passage adapted from De Bello Gallico by Caesar, I. 2.1-6

Example Question #5 : Grammatical And Syntactic Terminology In Caesar

(1) Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. (2) Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. (3) Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important, (4) proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. (5) Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum, attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum, vergit ad septentriones. (6) Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur, pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni, spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. (7) Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat inter occasum solis et septentriones.

What is the case of finibus (part 4)?

Possible Answers:

Ablative

Dative

Genitive

Accusative

Correct answer:

Dative

Explanation:

The word finibus comes from the noun finis, finis. The -ibus ending is the dative or ablative plural ending for 3rd declension nouns like this one. Context tells us that this word must be dative, though ("ipsi...gerunt," They wage war for the ends of those [people]). The correct choice is: "dative."

Passage adapted from De Bello Gallico by Caesar, I. 1-7

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