AP Human Geography : Patterns of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Patterns Of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during a year per how many people in a given population?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Crude birth rate indicates the number of live births occurring during a year per every 1,000 people in a given population in a given year.

Example Question #32 : Geographical Analysis Of Population

The “Green Revolution” took place in this century and immediately led to massive population growth around the world.

Possible Answers:

Twenty-first

Eighteenth

Twentieth

Seventeenth

Nineteenth

Correct answer:

Twentieth

Explanation:

The “Green Revolution” is the name given to a series of technological innovations in the 1940s, 50s, and early 60s that led to a massive growth in agricultural production around the world in the late 1960s. This led to massive population growth, particularly in the developing world.

Example Question #2 : Patterns Of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

The “natural increase rate” for a country is calculated by __________.

Possible Answers:

finding the difference between the total fertility rate and the adjusted death rate

finding the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate

finding the difference between immigration and emigration for a country

adding together the number of immigrants and the crude birth rate and then subtracting the number of emigrants and the crude death rate

None of the other answers is correct

Correct answer:

finding the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate

Explanation:

The “natural increase rate” is a statistic used to measure the growth of population in a region, exclusive of immigration and emigration. It only considers the crude birth rate and the crude death rate. If the death rate is higher than the birth rate, then the region has a “negative natural increase rate.”

Example Question #3 : Patterns Of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

The total fertility rate reflects which of the following?

Possible Answers:

The total number of children born in a given region during a given time period

The average number of deaths per thousand births in a given region during a given time period

The total number of children born during a generation in a particular region

The average number of women who are capable of conceiving in a given region during a given time period

The average number of children that each woman has during her lifetime

Correct answer:

The average number of children that each woman has during her lifetime

Explanation:

The total fertility rate is the average number of children born to each woman in a given region during the course of her lifetime. Anything higher than four is a very high total fertility rate and anything lower than two is a very low total fertility rate. Most of the developed world is fairly close to two and much of the developing world is close to, or in excess of, four.

Example Question #3 : Patterns Of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

If the maternal mortality rate is high, then __________.

Possible Answers:

the number of women who die before child-bearing age is high

the number of children being born is high

the number of children who die during the first year of their life is high

the number of children dying in the first five years of their life is high

the number of women who die in childbirth is high

Correct answer:

the number of women who die in childbirth is high

Explanation:

The maternal mortality rate reflects the number of women, per thousand, who die during childbirth. So, if the maternal mortality rate is high (like in Sierra Leone or Bangladesh) then the number of women who die during childbirth is high. To provide possible clarification, “maternal” means motherly and “mortality” means death.

Example Question #36 : Geographical Analysis Of Population

The "baby boom" generation was born in the immediate aftermath of __________.

Possible Answers:

the First World War

the Great Depression

the Civil Rights Era

the Second World War

the Vietnam War

Correct answer:

the Second World War

Explanation:

The "baby boom" generation began in 1946, the year after the end of the Second World War, and lasted until 1964. This generation is primarily unique to the United States, although other Western countries experienced a similar spike in birth rate and lowering of the death rate. The baby boom generation began when the millions of soldiers returned home from war and were offered unprecedented job opportunities and access to higher education. Marriage rates and fertility rates both rose as the population skyrocketed.

Example Question #4 : Patterns Of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

In the United States of America, which of these factors is most relevant and variable when determining life expectancy for an individual?

Possible Answers:

Language

Gender

Political affiliation

Race

Religious belief

Correct answer:

Race

Explanation:

Although gender is a relevant factor in determining life expectancy in the United States, it is far less variable than race. While in general women have a life expectancy of two or three years more than men, the difference between life expectencies of white people and black people in the United States can be as much as ten years. There is a number of reasons why this is, including black people being much more likely to experience violence and receive poor healthcare; however, the primary reason is that institutional racism remains a part of American society and white Americans are much more likely to be wealthy.

Example Question #5 : Patterns Of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

In countries with high maternal mortality rate and high infant mortality rate, the __________ is also likely to be high.

Possible Answers:

access to higher education

level of economic development

level of immigration

status of women

total fertility rate

Correct answer:

total fertility rate

Explanation:

Maternal mortality rate refers to the number of mothers who die in childbirth for every thousand births. The infant mortality rate refers to the number of babies who die before their first birthday for every thousand births. In countries where both these numbers are high (like South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa), the total fertility rate is also likely to be high. The total fertility rate reflects the number of children who are born on average to a woman during her lifetime. In societies where a large proportion of children die young, the total fertility rate is likely to be much higher than in countries where the vast majority of children survive to adulthood.

Example Question #153 : Population & Migration

In the 1960s and 1970s in the United States, __________.

Possible Answers:

the rate of emigration declined dramatically

the total fertility rate declined significantly

the total fertility rate increased significantly

the crude birth rate and the crude death rate both rose slightly

the rate of immigration declined dramatically

Correct answer:

the total fertility rate declined significantly

Explanation:

The period from 1964 to around 1980 is often called the “Baby Bust.” This is because the total fertility rate declined significantly from the era of the “Baby Boom” generation. The total fertility rate declined for many different reasons, but the primary reason was the relatively dramatic increase in female empowerment during this time period. More women were university-educated, more were entering the workforce, more were using contraception, and more were waiting longer to have children. The cumulative effect was a decline in the natural increase rate and the total fertility rate.

Example Question #6 : Patterns Of Fertility, Mortality, & Health

Which of these statements about the effect of improved healthcare on the population growth of a country is most accurate?

Possible Answers:

Improved healthcare can have conflicting influences on the rate of population growth

Improved healthcare usually accompanies a decline in the rate of population growth

Improved healthcare usually accompanies an increase in the rate of population growth

Improved healthcare always leads to an increase in the rate of population growth

Improved healthcare generally leads to a decline in the rate of population growth

Correct answer:

Improved healthcare can have conflicting influences on the rate of population growth

Explanation:

Improved healthcare can have conflicting and widely variable influences on the rate of population growth. It rather depends on the starting point from which you are improving. For example, in South Sudan, increased access to medicine and better prenatal care would lead to a rapid growth in population in a short space of time; however, in Germany, improved healthcare would provide contraception and family planning advice, which would lead to a declining rate of population growth.

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