# AP Human Geography : Historical Trends & Future Projections

## Example Questions

### Example Question #1 : Historical Trends & Future Projections

Despite the prevalence of modern medicine worldwide, many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing decreasing life expectencies. Why is this?

HIV/AIDS

Terrorism

Crop Devastation

Disease

Decay of Infrastructure

HIV/AIDS

Explanation:

HIV/AIDS rates in Sub-Saharan Africa have reached more than 25% in some countries, severely decreasing the populations of these areas. While all of these factors decrease popuations, none are nearly as threatening as the prevalence and expansion of HIV/AIDS.

### Example Question #1 : Historical Trends & Future Projections

The current global annual natural increase rate is closest to __________.

120 million

12 million

12 percent

1.2 percent

0.12 percent

1.2 percent

Explanation:

The global annual natural increase rate is approximately 88,000,000 people per year. The answer choice '1.2 percent' yields an answer of approximately 88,000,000.

The answer choice '12 percent' is a poor choice because it yields an answer of 888,000,000, which is approximately 10 times greater than the actual natural increase rate.

The answer choice '0.12 percent' is also a poor choice because it yields and answer of 8,800,000, which is nearly 10 times less than the actual natural increase rate.

The answer choices '12 million' and '120 million' are not the best answer choices available because they are not closest to 88 million.

### Example Question #3 : Historical Trends & Future Projections

As the "Baby Boomer" generation reaches retirement age in the United States, which of the following demographic rates will increase?

childhood mortality rate

fertility rate

rate of natural increase

independency ratio

dependency ratio

dependency ratio

Explanation:

The dependency ratio would increase. The dependency ratio is the ratio of economically-dependent people in a society (those younger than 16 years old or over 65 years old) to the people they depend on (people who are economically productive individuals from 16-65 years old). As the "Baby Boomers" retire, they will rely upon younger generations.

The fertility rate would not increase as the population ages, because the aging "Baby Boomer" generation will not be having more children. Similarly, the rate of natural increase will not increase because the aging of the "Baby Boomers" should not increase the birth rate or decrease the death rate. The childhood mortality rate will not be affected by the aging "Baby Boomers" because the aging of this generation does not directly affect the health of young children. The independency ratio is not a real term used by geographers.

### Example Question #4 : Historical Trends & Future Projections

Which of the following countries was not colonized by Great Britain?

India

Mexico

United States