AP Human Geography : Government Development Initiatives

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Government Development Initiatives

Which of the following choices describes the reasons why export-processing zones are beneficial to the developing world?

Possible Answers:

They allow a country to develop independently of external manipulation

They are designed to protect the environment of the local region

They provide protection against foreign competition

They offer incentives for foreign investment

They provide a tax-shelter for wealthy businessmen from the developing world

Correct answer:

They offer incentives for foreign investment

Explanation:

Export-processing zones are areas found in many regions of the developing world. They provide incentives for foreign companies to conduct their business in developing regions. They provide benefits to the developing world in the form of foreign investments and improved employment opportunities.

Example Question #2 : Government Development Initiatives

What advantages do offshore financial centers offer to large businesses?

Possible Answers:

Raw materials and a sizeable labor force

All of these answers are correct.

Protection from fraud and external competition

New markets and manufacturing centers

Low taxes and high levels of secrecy

Correct answer:

Low taxes and high levels of secrecy

Explanation:

“Offshore financial centers” have sprung up around the world in recent years. They are generally, although not always, island nations with a relatively small economy (notable exceptions include Switzerland and Panama). They offer very low taxes and varying degrees of secrecy for large businesses who store a portion of their money in the financial centers of the country. This has benefits for both the large businesses and the governments of the offshore financial centers. Both profit, and both have to worry less about the consequences of their actions. Offshore centers of this kind are often controversial as a result of these practices.

Example Question #3 : Government Development Initiatives

The growth of Maquiladoras is primarily a consequence of __________.

Possible Answers:

the growth of the European Union

the invention of the Internet

the North American Free Trade Agreement

the North Atlantic Treaty Organization

the end of the Cold War

Correct answer:

the North American Free Trade Agreement

Explanation:

Maquiladoras are regions of northern Mexico where American companies conduct a great deal of their business, particularly manufacturing. They flourished in the 1990s and 2000s in the aftermath of the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which greatly reduced trading obstacles between Mexico, the United States, and Canada.

Example Question #4 : Government Development Initiatives

What was the target year for the United Nations Millennium Development Goals?

Possible Answers:

2050

2035

2025

2100

2015

Correct answer:

2015

Explanation:

Believe it or not the target year for the United Nations Millennium Development Goals was 2015. Seeing as you are reading this in either 2015, or after, you can be fairly confident that the United Nations did not meet its goals of eradicating starvation and poverty, providing universal public education, and combating malaria (as well as several others). But, these dates are often arbitrary and are more meant to serve as motivation than concrete deadlines. Progress has certainly been made in almost all areas of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals since 2000.  

Example Question #5 : Government Development Initiatives

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals included all of the following except __________.

Possible Answers:

universal public education

reducing religious conflict

promoting gender equality

ensuring environmental sustainability

reducing child mortality rates

Correct answer:

reducing religious conflict

Explanation:

The United Nations Millennium Development Goals were passed at a 2000 summit of the United Nations. They included all of these answers except reducing religious conflict. They also included eradicating extreme hunger, improving maternal health, encouraging cooperative global commerce, and combating malaria and other infectious viruses.

Example Question #6 : Government Development Initiatives

Which of these is not a major offshore financial center?

Possible Answers:

Switzerland

Singapore

These are all examples of major offshore financial centers

The Bahamas

The Cayman Islands

Correct answer:

These are all examples of major offshore financial centers

Explanation:

The “offshore” aspect of “offshore financial centers” refers to the fact that these countries are usually small islands but they do not have to be. In fact, Switzerland is one of the most historically significant “offshore financial centers” in the world, and it continues to be extremely influential to this day. An “offshore financial center” is a country that encourages foreign companies to conduct financial transactions in their territory by providing very low tax rates and varying degrees of institutional secrecy.

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