AP Human Geography : Globalization

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Globalization

Which of the following is NOT a major cause of increased globalization?

Possible Answers:

Advances in communication

Investment in foreign markets

A return to agricultural lifestyles

Advances in transportation

Spread of mass culture around the world

Correct answer:

A return to agricultural lifestyles

Explanation:

"Globalization" is a broad term that describes the increased interconnectivity between different regions and countries across the globe. While different cultures had always shared ideas and economic products, the nineteenth century saw a rapid rise in globalization that has continued into the twenty first century thanks to improved transportation, communication, mass culture, and foreign investment.

Example Question #2 : Globalization

Which of the following terms is best defined as a company that does not exhibit material or market orientation?

Possible Answers:

Flexible organization

Unencumbered corporation

Conglomerate corporation

Brick and mortar company

Footloose firm

Correct answer:

Footloose firm

Explanation:

The term “footloose firms” is applied to companies that do not exhibit a market orientation or a material orientation. A company with a material orientation locates its manufacturing centers close to the source of the raw materials because the composite parts cost more to ship than the finished product; therefore, it is cost effective to be as close as possible to the source. A company with a market orientation locates its manufacturing centers close to the most profitable markets because the composite parts cost less to ship than the finished product; therefore, it is cost effective to be as close as possible to the best possible markets. A “footloose firm” is a company whose raw resources and final products are so cheap and light that they do not need to worry about these considerations.

Example Question #1 : Globalization

Which of these best describes a multinational corporation?

Possible Answers:

A company that receives significant advantages from the governments of various countries.

A company that conducts all areas of its business in one country.

A company that produces cheap goods to be sold on a global market.

A company that conducts different areas of its business in different countries.

A company that produces expensive and specialized goods.

Correct answer:

A company that conducts different areas of its business in different countries.

Explanation:

Over the last fifty years most large corporations have become multinational, or transnational, corporations. This means they conduct different areas of their business in different countries. For example a raw product might be harvested in central Africa, used to manufacture goods in China, and shipped around the world for sale. Multinational corporations often enjoy certain advantages and incentives provided by local governments, but this does not define them in the way that the correct answer does.

Example Question #2 : Globalization

The Suez Canal was primarily built in order to __________.

Possible Answers:

reduce trading time and expenses between Europe and India

improve the economic viability of Egypt as a European colony

facilitate British control over the Middle East and the Mediterranean

solidify French control over the Middle East and North Africa

allow the British navy to quickly move from the Arabian Sea to the Mediterranean during the Crimean War

Correct answer:

reduce trading time and expenses between Europe and India

Explanation:

The Suez Canal was built through eastern Egypt in order to connect the Arabian Sea with the Mediterranean. This dramatically reduced the shipping cost and time required for trading between Europe and the Far East (particularly India). Previously ships had had to sail around the whole African continent, a costly and time-consuming endeavor. The Suez Canal came into British control in the 1870s and remained there until the 1950s when it came under the control of independent Egypt following the 1956 Suez Crisis.

Example Question #4 : Globalization

Maquiladoras are __________.

Possible Answers:

blossoming markets in Latin America

export-processing cities in northern Mexico

workers in Latin America who lobby their government to provide tax incentives to encourage foreign businesses to set up branches in the region

workers in northern Mexico who are campaigning for the forced eviction of American businesses from the region

countries in Latin America who have not integrated smoothly into the global economy

Correct answer:

export-processing cities in northern Mexico

Explanation:

“Maquiladoras” are export-processing cities that exist throughout Northern Mexico. In “Maquiladoras” American companies take advantage of the relatively cheap labor available in the region, as well as the proximity to the markets of the United States, to produce goods cheaper than they could in America. Such cities exist in so-called "Free Trade Zones."

Example Question #3 : Globalization

Which of these is a notable example of a maquiladoras?

Possible Answers:

Trinidad and Tobago

Ciudad Juárez

Mexico City

Sao Paolo

Buenos Aires

Correct answer:

Ciudad Juárez

Explanation:

“Maquiladoras” are export-processing cities that exist in northern Mexico, close to the border with the United States. They are major centers of industry for a wide variety of American companies who do their manufacturing in the region because it enables them to save a great deal of money. Of these options, only Ciudad Juárez could be considered a “maquiladoras.”

Example Question #4 : Globalization

Globalization in the twentieth century was slowed by all of the following except __________.

Possible Answers:

World War II

the Cold War

the Great Depression

World War I

All of these answers slowed the momentum of globalization in the twentieth century

Correct answer:

All of these answers slowed the momentum of globalization in the twentieth century

Explanation:

“Globalization” refers to the homogenizing impact on local culture and economics caused by increased interaction between geographically distinct regions. As a movement it has been going on for hundreds, if not thousands of years, but the movement has really accelerated since the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Despite the massive impact of globalization in the twentieth century, its momentum was slowed by all of these answer choices, as they all divided the world into different ideological camps, preventing the exchange of products, culture, and ideas.

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