AP Human Geography : Fragmentation, Unification, & Cooperation

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Fragmentation, Unification, & Cooperation

Which of the following was not a significant factor in the dissolution of the former Yugoslavia?

Possible Answers:

Linguistic differences between constituent states

Paramilitary activities by nationalist groups

Religious differences between constituent states

Political favoritism for certain regions and states

International invasions to the capital of Belgrade

Correct answer:

International invasions to the capital of Belgrade

Explanation:

The breakup of Yugoslavia in the early 1990s was fueled by both the collapse of Yugoslavia's communist regime and the many divisions between the various constituent states. Ethnic, linguistic, and religious differences had been problematic under communist rule, but exploded after the dissolution of the communist state thanks to new paramilitary, nationalist organizations. International groups were slow to respond to the multilayered crisis, as many outside organizations saw it as a series of civil wars.

Example Question #2 : Fragmentation, Unification, & Cooperation

The Abyei dispute arose between which of the following two nations or entities?

Possible Answers:

United States and Mexico

Sudan and South Sudan

The Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland

Pakistan and India

Turkey and Greece

Correct answer:

Sudan and South Sudan

Explanation:

The Abyei dispute arose between Sudan and South Sudan and involves an oil-rich area of land on the border of the two nations. The Kashmir dispute arose between Pakistan and India, while the Cyprus dispute arose between Turkey and Greece.

Example Question #1 : Fragmentation, Unification, & Cooperation

The division or fragmentation of a larger state due to disputes amongst different ethnicities in its population is commonly referred to as __________.

Possible Answers:

subjugation

balkanization

colonization

revolution

segregation

Correct answer:

balkanization

Explanation:

Balkanization is a term used to describe the division or fragmentation of a larger state due to disputes amongst different ethnicities in its population. The term derives its name from the division of the Balkan peninsula in the nineteenth century.

Example Question #4 : Fragmentation, Unification, & Cooperation

Bangladesh became an independent country in 1971, but from which country did it gain its independence?

Possible Answers:

China

The United Kingdom

France

India

Pakistan

Correct answer:

Pakistan

Explanation:

When India gained independence in 1947 the territory was partitioned into Pakistan and India to reflect the plurality of Muslim and Hindu populations in those areas. Pakistan is located to the west of India and had a Muslim majority; however, the territory now known as Bangladesh is located to the east of India and also had a Muslim majority. These two geographically and culturally separate regions were incorporated into one state - Pakistan. Not surprisingly the Bangladeshi people, far from the central government, were marginalized. In 1971 they achieved independence in the Bangladesh Liberation War.

Example Question #5 : Fragmentation, Unification, & Cooperation

The dismemberment of this empire led to British control over Iraq and Palestine and French control over Syria in the aftermath of World War I?

Possible Answers:

The Persian Empire

The German Empire

The Russian Empire

The Ottoman Empire

The Austro-Hungarian Empire

Correct answer:

The Ottoman Empire

Explanation:

The Ottoman Empire existed for several centuries and was centered around the major city of Istanbul. At its height it controlled most of the Middle East, parts of North Africa, and much of the Balkans. In the nineteenth century, it was often referred to as the “Sick man of Europe” reflecting its declining power and status. In the aftermath of World War I the empire was disbanded and Britain and France, ever the opportunists, moved in and took control of various territories. Iraq and Palestine would become British colonial possessions (the consequences of this are massive and include the existence of Israel as a state and much of the current strife in the region) and Syria would become a French possession.

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