AP Human Geography : Effects of National Population Policies

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Effects Of National Population Policies

Population policies vary by government. One example of a population policy is a eugenic policy. What is a eugenic policy?

Possible Answers:

A policy restricting immigration in order to halt rapid population growth

A policy encouraging reproduction and population growth

A policy limiting the amount of children per family

A policy encouraging marriage and the maintenance of traditional family units

A policy that favors one racial group within the population

Correct answer:

A policy that favors one racial group within the population

Explanation:

Eugenic policies favor one racial group and may lead to the subjugation of other groups with less political or social capital. One example is the Nazi Germany policy favoring people of Aryan descent over other ethnic and cultural groups.

Example Question #2 : Effects Of National Population Policies

Which of these statements about the relationship between economic development and population growth is most accurate?

Possible Answers:

A significant increase in economic development will lead to an immediate decrease in population growth

A significant increase in economic development will eventually lead to a significant decrease in population growth

A significant increase in economic development will lead to an immediate increase in population growth

None of the other answers is correct

A significant increase in economic development will eventually lead to a significant increase in population growth

Correct answer:

A significant increase in economic development will eventually lead to a significant decrease in population growth

Explanation:

Generally speaking, a significant increase in economic development in a country or region will eventually lead to a significant decrease in population growth. We know that this increase will likely not happen immediately because it takes time for a society to adjust to improved standard of living; for a time, the death rate will fall whilst the birth rate stays the same. Eventually people will realize that more of their children are surviving and that they have a great deal more options in life, and the birth rate will begin to fall as well, leading to a decrease in population growth. It is important to remember that this is a generalization and as a rule is not always applicable.

Example Question #3 : Effects Of National Population Policies

The “one child” policy is most closely associated with which of these countries?

Possible Answers:

India

China

Pakistan

Russia

Brazil

Correct answer:

China

Explanation:

China’s population grew immensely in the twentieth century from an already high starting point. In the 1970s, Chinese politicians began to worry that the population was growing too fast, and that soon China’s population growth would be out of control and the country would not be able to cope with the demand for resources. The government implemented a “one child” policy that provides incentives for parents who have only one child and punishments for those that have more. This is not uniformly enforced and has led to many social ills, but it has also curtailed China’s massive population growth.

Example Question #2 : Effects Of National Population Policies

Which of these policies would “Neo-Malthusians” most likely support?

Possible Answers:

Programs designed to encourage technological innovation in agricultural production

Programs designed to limit family size to two children

Programs designed to provide aid to developing nations

Programs designed to help migrants settle and assimilate in new communities

Programs designed to provide educational opportunities to women

Correct answer:

Programs designed to limit family size to two children

Explanation:

“Neo-Malthusians” generally adhere to Thomas Malthus’ Principle of Population, but have adapted it to suit the modern time period. “Neo-Malthusians” believe that the population of the world is growing too quickly for the scale of agricultural production to keep up. “Neo-Malthusians” advocate for programs and policies designed to control population growth, so they would be most likely to support a program that limits family size to two children.

Example Question #2 : Effects Of National Population Policies

A population policy derived from eugenics is designed to __________.

Possible Answers:

deter people from using contraception on religious grounds

provide incentives to families who have a small number of children

favor the growth of one gender over the other within a society

favor the growth of one race over others within a society

provide incentives to families who have a large number of children

Correct answer:

favor the growth of one race over others within a society

Explanation:

Eugenics is the “science” of improving the human population by encouraging only a specific group of people to breed. It generally favors the growth of one race over others within a society. Eugenics was popular in Europe in the early twentieth century, but continues to be influential in some parts of the world to this day.

Example Question #3 : Effects Of National Population Policies

In the United States, the census is conducted __________.

Possible Answers:

every four years

every six months

every ten years

every five years

once a year

Correct answer:

every ten years

Explanation:

A census is an official government survey of the population of a government’s country. It usually includes questions about race, gender, religious identity, income, and a great many other things. In the United States, it is conducted every ten years and is used to determine representation in Congress (among other things).

Example Question #4 : Effects Of National Population Policies

Countries that discourage or ban the use of contraceptives are more likely to experience which of the following?

I. Gender inequality

II. High birth rates

III. High death rates

Possible Answers:

I, II, and III

I and III only

I only

II only

II and III only

Correct answer:

I, II, and III

Explanation:

Countries that discourage or ban the use of contraceptives are more likely to experience all of the provided answer options. High death rates result from the rampant spread of sexual disease, particularly AIDS. High birth rates result from the inability of women to control the reproductive process, which is of course linked to gender inequality. Many sociologists and historians agree that the relatively rapid increase in gender equality in many parts of the world in the last fifty years has been primarily caused by the availability of contraception, which allows women to dictate when, and with whom, they have children.

Example Question #8 : Effects Of National Population Policies

Which of these countries is most likely to have enacted “expansive population policies”?

Possible Answers:

Ghana

Sweden

Bolivia

Uganda

Bangladesh

Correct answer:

Sweden

Explanation:

An “expansive population policy” is an official government policy designed to encourage the population to conceive and raise multiple children. Unlike a “restrictive population policy,” its primary goal is to increase the rate of population growth to prevent the economic and social welfare problems that arise with an aging population. “Expansive population policies” are most common in Western and Northern Europe where birth rates are some of the lowest in the world. Countries like Sweden, France, the U.K., Germany, and Italy have some form of “expansive population policies” in place.

Example Question #5 : Effects Of National Population Policies

A country that makes universal public education a policy priority is likely to see __________.

Possible Answers:

a decline in the rate of population growth

a decline in the number of women in the workforce

an increase in the number of emigrants leaving the country

an increase in the rate of population growth

an increase in the total fertility rate

Correct answer:

a decline in the rate of population growth

Explanation:

Most studies and statistics on the subject demonstrate that any country that prioritizes education and providing universal access to education is likely to see a decline in the rate of its population growth. This is because as people become better educated they have more opportunities open to them and more control over their lives - this is particularly significant for women. Women who are well-educated are less likely to have unplanned pregnancies, less likely to have large families, and more likely to start those families at a later age. All of this contributes to a decline in the rate of population growth, or, in geographic parlance, a decline in the “natural increase rate.”

Example Question #10 : Effects Of National Population Policies

Which of these has not been a feature of China's one child policy?

Possible Answers:

Forced abortions

Inspections

All of these options have been features of the one child policy.

Awareness campaigns

Fines levied for violations

Correct answer:

All of these options have been features of the one child policy.

Explanation:

China's one-child policy has historically featured all of the following: awareness campaigns, inspections, fines, and forced abortions.

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