AP Human Geography : Deindustrialization

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Deindustrialization

In which of these regions of the United States have the effects of deindustrialization been felt most extremely?

Possible Answers:

The Midwest

The deep South

Alaska and Hawaii

The West Coast

The Northeast

Correct answer:

The Midwest

Explanation:

During the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth century the industrial center of the United States was the Midwest. Factories in Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Pennsylvania accounted for a disproportionate share of American industrial power. When, in the 1970s, American companies began to move their manufacturing centers abroad, the economy of the Midwest suffered dramatically. Unemployment rose very quickly and people began to migrate away from the region in search of work and a sustainable living situation. This has led the region to be called the “Rust Belt,” based on the rusting heavy machinery lying around throughout the Midwest. Cities like Detroit, Flint, Akron, and Toledo have felt this transition particularly extremely.

Example Question #2 : Deindustrialization

Which of these best explains why the 1970s and 1980s were so challenging for workers in the developed world?

Possible Answers:

Deindustrialization led to a decline in social welfare and government assistance throughout Europe and North America.

The transition from a service-based economy to an industrial economy led to lower wages and a loss of community values.

The transition from a service-based economy to an industrial economy led to harsher working conditions and a lower quality of life.

The transition from an industrial economy to a service-based economy required many workers to go back to school and study for a completely different career.

The transition from an industrial economy to a service-based economy depleted the demand for unspecialized labor.

Correct answer:

The transition from an industrial economy to a service-based economy depleted the demand for unspecialized labor.

Explanation:

In the 1970s and 1980s most of the developed world transitioned from a primarily industrial economy to a service-based economy. This had many benefits for the people of the developed world, such as higher wages and safer working conditions, but also brought with it many difficulties. The demand for unspecialized and factory-based labor declined rapidly and dramatically, as those jobs were transitioned overseas. Many workers were too old, or too deprived of any higher education, to transition smoothly into a new working environment, and unemployment and social unrest were rife throughout the developed world as a result.

Example Question #1 : Deindustrialization

The process of deindustrialization in the developed world has led to a transition into __________.

Possible Answers:

boom and bust economic cycles

agricultural economies

homestead communities

service-based economies

cottage industries

Correct answer:

service-based economies

Explanation:

During the past half-century much of the developed world has experienced a process known as deindustrialization -factories and manufacturing centers have closed down in the United States of America, Western Europe, and Japan and those jobs have been outsourced to the developing world. This has led to the rise of “service-based economies” in the developed world. A “service-based economy” is an economy in which most of the workers are involved in providing services such as research, marketing, telecommunications, innovation, teaching, and so on.

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