AP Human Geography : Changes to Fertility & Mortality

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #22 : Social & Economic Measures Of Development

Child mortality rates improved during the nineteenth century for all of the following factors EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

improved access to medical care

improved agricultural technologies

higher urban sanitation standards

improved medical knowledge and technology

more widespread beliefs in folk medicine

Correct answer:

more widespread beliefs in folk medicine

Explanation:

From the nineteenth century onwards, the industrialized world saw a remarkable improvement in mortality rates, especially among children but in all age demographics. The direct causes for this were varied, but included improved medical knowledge, better access to medical care, and improved sanitation standards. Some of the more indirect causes included more food sources due to better agricultural technology, wider social mobility, and more trust in modern science, which led there to be fewer famines and lower infection rates.

Example Question #23 : Social & Economic Measures Of Development

Which of the following is characteristic of Stage 2 in demographic transition?

Possible Answers:

Both mortality and birth rates are in steady decline.

Both the birth and mortality rates are steady but high.

Both the birth and mortality rates have declined and stabilized, remaining consistently low.

The birth rate is consistently high and the mortality rate is steadily declining.

The mortality rate has declined and stabilized while the birth rate has remained consistently high.

Correct answer:

The birth rate is consistently high and the mortality rate is steadily declining.

Explanation:

Stage 2 of demographic transition includes the formation of permanent towns and societies all the way up to the industrialization and formation of large cities. During this time, food has become more abundant due to agriculture, and humans are less susceptible to famine. In addition, medicine and healthcare become available, and hygiene improves, resulting in a decline in the mortality rate; however, birth rates are still very high during Stage 2, while the mortality rate will begin to decline. The population will also begin to increase sharply at this point.

Example Question #24 : Social & Economic Measures Of Development

Which of the following would be characteristic of Stage 1 of the demographic transition model?

Possible Answers:

High and erratic birth rates with a correspondingly high and fluctuating mortality rate

A birth and death rate that are both moderate but constantly fluctuating

A low birth rate and a fluctuating death rate

A fluctuating birth rate and a consistently high death rate

High but relatively constant birth rate and a fluctuating death rate

Correct answer:

High and erratic birth rates with a correspondingly high and fluctuating mortality rate

Explanation:

Stage 1 of the demographic transition is typically pre-historic and occurs when the infrastructure and resources to guard against famine, disease, drought, and other disasters are generally not available (no flu vaccines, no food aid programs, etc.). This results in high and fluctuating birth and death rates, because environmental conditions and epidemics have a direct impact on birth and mortality rates.

Example Question #25 : Social & Economic Measures Of Development

Which of the following best describes the birth and mortality rates in Stage 3 of a demographic transition?

Possible Answers:

The birth and mortality rates have both declined and stabilized.

Both the birth and mortality rates are declining sharply.

The birth rate is sharply declining while the mortality rate is declining but has started to level off.

The birth rate has begun to decline sharply but the mortality rate has stabilized and is not showing much change.

The birth rate has remained consistently high, while the death rate has plummeted and stabilized at a low rate.

Correct answer:

The birth rate is sharply declining while the mortality rate is declining but has started to level off.

Explanation:

Stage 3 of the demographic transition is the continuation of Stage 2, where the birth rate has begun to decline sharply while the mortality rate continues to decline but has begun leveling off. The continued decline in the death rate can be attributed to the increased presence of healthcare and medical facilities in matured industrial societies. The sharp decline in birth rates is attributed to the increase in accessible education for women, which tends to happen in industrialized societies.

Example Question #26 : Social & Economic Measures Of Development

Which of the following is not a consequence of low fertility rates?

Possible Answers:

Slowed economic growth

Smaller tax base

Increase in social programs benefitting the elderly

Population decline

Reductions in labor force

Correct answer:

Increase in social programs benefitting the elderly

Explanation:

Low fertility rates lead to population decline, reductions in the labor force, a smaller tax base, and slowed economic growth. These results actually hurt social programs benefitting the elderly (e.g. social security), which are paid for by taxes that are incurred when people work and spend. In general, a smaller tax base, which is a consequence of low fertility rates, will not facilitate increased funding for social services of any kind.

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