AP Human Geography : Borchert's Epochs of Urban Transportation Development

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

Which of these cities is a classic example of an American city that developed during the auto-air epoch of Borchert’s model of the development of cities?

Possible Answers:

New York City

Chicago

Boston

Philadelphia

Los Angeles

Correct answer:

Los Angeles

Explanation:

Transportation in the city of Los Angeles is dominated by the automobile. According to Borchert’s model on the development of cities this is because the city emerged in the early to mid twentieth century, during the auto-air epoch.

Example Question #2 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

The geographer John R. Borchert’s model of the growth of cities is primarily concerned with the development of __________.

Possible Answers:

recreation and sports

sanitation and public health

literacy and education

transportation and communication

government and politics

Correct answer:

transportation and communication

Explanation:

The urban geographer John R. Borchert’s model focuses on the development of cities in relation to the development of transportation and communication. According to Borchert’s model a city’s urban layout owes a great deal to what forms of transportation and communication were available when the city was settled.

Example Question #3 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

In Borchert’s model of the development of cities, which of the following epochs preceded the auto-air epoch?

Possible Answers:

The steel rail epoch

The iron-horse epoch

The satellite-jet epoch

The sail-wagon epoch

The steam boat epoch

Correct answer:

The steel rail epoch

Explanation:

Borchert’s model of the development of cities tracks the growth of American cities with regard to the prevailing transportation and communication technology of the time period. The auto-air epoch runs from the early twentieth century until the 1970s, it is preceded by the steel rail epoch, which lasted from the 1860s until the early 1900s.

Example Question #4 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

Big cities in the northeast of the United States, like New York City and Boston, primarily developed during which epoch of Borchert’s model on the development of cities?

Possible Answers:

Either the sail-wagon epoch or the iron-horse epoch

During the satellite-jet epoch

During the steel rail epoch

During the auto-air epoch

Either the iron-horse epoch or the auto-air epoch

Correct answer:

Either the sail-wagon epoch or the iron-horse epoch

Explanation:

New York City and Boston are two of the earliest American cities. They are both organized around pedestrian traffic, with narrow streets and tall-looming skyscrapers. These are features of cities that emerged during the sail-wagon epoch and the iron-horse epoch.

Example Question #1 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

In Borchert’s model of the development of cities, the sail-wagon epoch is followed by the __________.

Possible Answers:

Satellite-jet epoch

Iron-horse epoch

Auto-air epoch

Canal-steam epoch

Steel rail epoch

Correct answer:

Iron-horse epoch

Explanation:

The sail-wagon epoch is the earliest epoch in Borchert’s model of the development of cities. Seeing as Borchert’s model focuses on the growth of American cities, the sail-wagon epoch begins in 1790 and ends in the early 1830s. It is followed by the iron-horse epoch which lasts until the late 1860s. The iron-horse epoch is followed by the steel rail epoch, which is in turn followed by the auto-air epoch, and finally by the satellite-jet epoch.

Example Question #6 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

The cities of Chicago and St. Louis both emerged during which epoch of Borchert’s model of the development of cities?

Possible Answers:

The iron-horse epoch

The auto-air epoch

The satellite-jet epoch

The sail-wagon epoch

The steel rail epoch

Correct answer:

The steel rail epoch

Explanation:

Borchert’s model of the development of cities tracks the growth of American cities with relation to the prevailing transportation and communication technology of different eras. The history of American cities is divided into five epochs, the five answer choices listed above. Chicago and St. Louis are two American cities that emerged in the second half of the nineteenth century as railroad hubs. Both these cities developed around the railroad and are classic examples of cities that evolved during the “steel-rail epoch.”

Example Question #7 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

How many epochs are there in Borchert’s model of the development of cities?

Possible Answers:

Seven

Five

Ten

Three

Eight

Correct answer:

Five

Explanation:

There are five epochs in Borchert’s model of the development of cities. The earliest is the sail-wagon epoch and the latest is the satellite-and-jet propulsion epoch. The second is the Iron Horse Epoch, and the third and fourth respectively are the Steel-Rail and the Auto-Air Amenity Epochs.

Example Question #8 : Borchert's Epochs Of Urban Transportation Development

Which of the epochs included the domination of the internal combustion engine?

Possible Answers:

High Technology

Iron-Horse

Sail-Wagon

Auto-Air-Amenity

Steel-Rail

Correct answer:

Auto-Air-Amenity

Explanation:

The Auto-Air-Amenity epoch runs roughly from 1920-1970. Within this epoch, the internal combustion engine transformed transportation.

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