AP Human Geography : Agribusiness

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Agribusiness

The largest effect of increased mechanization in modern agriculture has been __________.

Possible Answers:

a division of arable land among more individual farmers

a reduced need for farm laborers

an increased reliance on immigrant labor

a lack of reliance on cash crops

a diversification of agricultural crops

Correct answer:

a reduced need for farm laborers

Explanation:

Since the late nineteenth century, agricultural production has come to rely increasingly on mechanized means of production and farm equipment. This has greatly shifted the way crops are grown, with more cash crops grown in large monoculture plots by large corporations. Most significantly, all of these changes mean that fewer and fewer farm laborers are needed to grow the same amount of crops.

Example Question #2 : Agribusiness

Which of the following provides the best example of quaternary economic activity?

Possible Answers:

A date farmer in Jordan that sells his surplus crop to a local sugar refinery

A public land grant college that develops a variety of rice that does not require flood irrigation and can be grown in semi-arid countries whose farmers are challenged by frequent drought

An American-based facility that purchases government-subsidized corn and manufactures food additives and high fructose corn syrup

A subsistence farmer in Ecuador that sells some crop surplus to the market, but farms to support a family who lives on less than two dollars a day

An economic consultant who makes suggestions to companies as to which agricultural products to buy (coffee, dates, tobacco, etc.) given current market trends

Correct answer:

An economic consultant who makes suggestions to companies as to which agricultural products to buy (coffee, dates, tobacco, etc.) given current market trends

Explanation:

Quaternary economic activity refers mostly to information on market trends and the trade of goods. An economic consultant who recommends purchases for large companies best fits this definition.

Example Question #3 : Agribusiness

Which of the following provides the best example of quinary economic activity?

Possible Answers:

An entrepreneur who buys apples from local farmers and produces apple juice for resale

A stockbroker investing in a company's development and marketing of a pest-resistant soybean

A supermarket chain buying produce from large food producers and repackaging the product with recognizable brands to sell them to local consumers

Researchers at a public land grant college developing hybridized corn that will increase yields and grow in colder climates

Subsistence farmers in China selling rice and vegetables grown on their respective plots of land in a free market

Correct answer:

Researchers at a public land grant college developing hybridized corn that will increase yields and grow in colder climates

Explanation:

Quinary economic activity is defined as research and higher education. Developing seeds at a public land grant college best fits this definition, because research is being applied to increase economic activity in another sector.

Example Question #3 : Agribusiness

Which of the following is an example of tertiary economic activity in agribusiness?

Possible Answers:

A Florida orange grower who sells his oranges to a local food processing plant every season

A private biotech research company that is genetically engineering a variety of oranges that can be grown in temperate climates

A company that finds buyers for fair trade coffee and facilitates the purchase from Guatemalan coffee farmers for a percent commission

A factory that buys fruit from local growers and manufactures juice, canned goods, and vitamin supplements

An economist who informs subsistence farmers in underdeveloped countries of market patterns and which crops will be most profitable at a given time

Correct answer:

A company that finds buyers for fair trade coffee and facilitates the purchase from Guatemalan coffee farmers for a percent commission

Explanation:

Tertiary economic activity is the act of serving as an intermediary between producers and consumers to facilitate trade. Finding buyers for fair trade coffee and initiating the trade between them and consumers for a cut of the profit best fits this definition.

Example Question #4 : Agribusiness

Which of the following is the best example of primary economic activity?

Possible Answers:

A land grant research college in Georgia that has developed an experimental tree farm in an attempt to study sustainable timber harvesting

A logger in the Pacific Northwest who risks his or her life falling trees for $25,000 a year before taxes

A stockbroker who is currently investing in lumber products in the Pacific Northwest and Southeast Asia

A lumber mill in Port Angeles, WA that manufactures lumber, wood chips and various timber products from locally fallen trees

A freelance marketer who connects logging companies with manufacturers interested in purchasing raw timber to produce lumber and a wide range of paper products

Correct answer:

A logger in the Pacific Northwest who risks his or her life falling trees for $25,000 a year before taxes

Explanation:

Primary economic activity is defined as the act of directly harvesting natural resources. Logging tree stands for a living would be the best example of all provided choices.

Example Question #6 : Agribusiness

Which of these is not an example of a luxury crop?

Possible Answers:

Tobacco

Cotton

These are all examples of luxury crops

Tea

Coffee

Correct answer:

These are all examples of luxury crops

Explanation:

A “luxury crop” is a crop that is grown to serve some purpose other than sustaining human life. All of these crops are consumed for reasons other than nutrition and so are called “luxury crops.”

Example Question #5 : Agribusiness

The cultivation of drugs for sale is referred to as __________.

Possible Answers:

aquaculture

horticulture

black market agriculture

narco-agriculture

poppy farming

Correct answer:

narco-agriculture

Explanation:

The cultivation of drugs, like marijuana and opiates, for the purpose of sale on the black market is referred to as “narco-agriculture.” "Aquaculture" refers to the farming and cultivation of fish, crustaceans, and other sea life in controlled, designated environments. "Black market agriculture" refers to the sale of conventional agricultural products (like corn or wheat) for sale in non-sanctioned marketplaces, usually to avoid price-controls, taxes, or tariffs. Although the farming of poppies has been associated with the production of opiate drugs, this is too specific a term to be correct in this instance (the growing of marijuana or coca plants also fall under the umbrella of "narco-agriculture"). "Horticulture" simply refers to the intentional cultivation of plants.

Example Question #8 : Agribusiness

Each year more and more agricultural land is owned by __________.

Possible Answers:

military organizations

individual families

small-scale farming collectives

nationalized agribusiness

multinational agribusiness

Correct answer:

multinational agribusiness

Explanation:

Each year a larger and larger share of the world’s agricultural land is owned by multinational agribusiness. These multinational corporations buy up agricultural land in the developing world at a rapid rate and control almost every step in the process of producing, shipping, and selling agricultural products.

Example Question #9 : Agribusiness

In the past century the average size of farms in the United States has __________.

Possible Answers:

increased dramatically

decreased slightly

increased slightly

remained roughly the same

decreased significantly

Correct answer:

increased dramatically

Explanation:

In the past century the average size of farms in the United States has increased dramatically. This general trend can be applied globally and to most of human history as well. This is because it is more profitable and efficient to farm on larger scales than it is to farm on smaller scales. The general trend is that more and more agricultural land is being consolidated into fewer and fewer hands and larger tracts of property.

Example Question #6 : Agribusiness

The growth of agribusiness has led to a decline in __________.

Possible Answers:

agricultural efficiency

Agricultural production

All of these

small-land holdings

government interference

Correct answer:

small-land holdings

Explanation:

The growth of agribusiness, particularly multinational corporations, in the previous half-century has led to a marked decline around the world in small-land holdings and family-run farms. Agricultural production and efficiency have both increased and government interference is fairly consistent.

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