AP European History : Urbanization

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Urbanization

Which of the following was NOT a key contributor to the explosive growth in the population of Manchester, England, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries?

Possible Answers:

The diversification of British industry during the Industrial Revolution

Technological advances in the production of textiles

The ability of advanced agricultural techniques to produce more food with less labor

The boom in the cotton spinning industry due to easier shipping

Manchester's strategic location as a port city

Correct answer:

Manchester's strategic location as a port city

Explanation:

Manchester was a small, rural town in 1800 and a huge industrial metropolis by 1900. The largest cause of this growth was simply the Industrial Revolution, but more specifically, the urban area exploded in population first because of the technological advances in the cotton and textile industry that produced new factory jobs, advanced agricultural techniques that required less farm labor, the diversification of industry around the textile factories, and the ability to ship cotton and textiles all over the world. Remarkably for the time, Manchester grew despite not being on water that allowed it to be a port and was largely grown through railroads.

Example Question #2 : Urbanization

The Factory Act of 1833 was primarily concerned with __________.

Possible Answers:

disbanding unions and criminalizing strikes

regulating the hours of children working in factories

preventing women, particularly mothers, from working in factories

encouraging efficiency and productivity

All of the other answers are correct.

Correct answer:

regulating the hours of children working in factories

Explanation:

The Factory Act of 1833 was primarily concerned with regulating the hours of children working in factories in urban Britain. Child labor was common practice throughout the Industrial Revolution, and the Factory Act sought to limit the abuses of child labor by limiting children younger than fourteen to no more than eight hours of labor a day and children between the ages of fourteen and eighteen to no more than twelve hours of labor a day.

Example Question #3 : Urbanization

Greater social mobility during the era of urbanization and industrialization led to __________.

Possible Answers:

equal prosperity between the working and middle classes

declining rates of disease

the decline of religion as an important part of most people’s lives

a much larger number of children being born out of wedlock

None of these answers

Correct answer:

a much larger number of children being born out of wedlock

Explanation:

Between 1750 and 1900, the nature of the family unit in European society changed dramatically. Far fewer people were staying in one community their whole lives, so they were removed from the constraints of social obligation. This led to more people having sex outside of marriage and led to a massive spike in the number of “illegitimate” children.

Example Question #4 : Urbanization

Georges-Eugene Haussmann is remembered for his __________.

Possible Answers:

attempts to lead an uprising of the working classes during the Revolutions of 1848

attempts at political reform under Napoleon III

renovation of the urban layout of Paris

writings on factory life in France, Germany, and the Austrian Empire

attempts to unify the various German economies under the Zollverein

Correct answer:

renovation of the urban layout of Paris

Explanation:

Georges-Eugene Haussmann is most widely remembered for the massive project of renovation that he undertook to reshape the urban layout of Paris. He was commissioned to do so by Napoleon III and set out a massive restructuring of Parisian avenues, public works, parks, and buildings. The modern city of Paris is still very much in his image.

Example Question #5 : Urbanization

The temperance movement spread in Britain as middle-class women began to view __________.

Possible Answers:

religion as the primary moral force that could direct the lives of young men and women in a positive direction

tobacco as an extremely detrimental influence on public health

public education as the most useful means to keeping young people honest and hard-working

alcohol as the primary cause of many social ills

social welfare as the solution to many societal imbalances

Correct answer:

alcohol as the primary cause of many social ills

Explanation:

The temperance movement spread around Britain in the nineteenth century as many religious leaders and middle-class women began to speak out against the evils of alcohol. Many women believed that alcohol was responsible for many of social ills such as the mistreatment of women, the idleness of some men, and the fact that so many young children were growing up on the streets or without a father. Despite early success of the temperance movement, prohibition movements never spread in Britain like they did in the United States.

Example Question #6 : Urbanization

The New Poor Laws, passed by the British government in the 1830s, were designed to __________.

Possible Answers:

reduce the spiralling cost of providing employment for the poor by making workhouses extremely unpleasant

All of the other answer choices are correct.

quell revolution by granting certain voting rights to members of the British working class

provide comprehensive welfare to the working classes of urban centers during the British Industrial Revolution

shore-up support among the working class for the British monarchy

Correct answer:

reduce the spiralling cost of providing employment for the poor by making workhouses extremely unpleasant

Explanation:

Poor Laws had been common in British society since the fourteenth century and were generally designed to provide economic relief for the poorest members of British society; however, by the 1830s, the cost of maintaining Poor Laws had spiralled to the point where the elite of British society were no longer comfortable with them. The New Poor Laws were designed to dramatically reduce the cost of providing for the poor by making life in the workhouses so arduous that only the really desperate would seek aid. Unsurprisingly, they were met with widespread disdain.

Example Question #7 : Urbanization

How did the work of Louis Pasteur contribute to the development and shape of urbanization in Europe?

Possible Answers:

Pasteur founded major banks that specialized in providing financing for those looking to relocate to urban areas.

Pasteur made many advances in architectural science that greatly contributed to the safety of urban buildings.

Pasteur built a number of schools for the poor and low-class urban dwellers in order to fight the destabilizing inequality present in urban areas.

Pasteur pioneered the germ theory of disease, which provided a path toward understanding and preventing the epidemics that plagued tightly populated and dirty urban areas.

Pasteur developed new methods for paving roads, which greatly improved the transportation available to urban residents.

Correct answer:

Pasteur pioneered the germ theory of disease, which provided a path toward understanding and preventing the epidemics that plagued tightly populated and dirty urban areas.

Explanation:

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) is a renowned scientist famous for developing the germ theory of disease. Pasteur discovered that microorganisms could contaminate food and water, and that these contaminations could spread diseases to humans. This discovery was of particular importance to the process of urbanization, as many of the burgeoning cities of Pasteur's era had little infrastructure to deal with waste or food safety. Pasteur's ideas proved the need for the development of public health infrastructure to bring down the dizzying death rates of urban areas due to disease. Pasteur also developed many processes for dealing with microorganisms, such as some the earliest vaccines and the eponymous process of pasteurizing food and drink via heating, pasteurization.

Example Question #8 : Urbanization

The process of curing rubber to make it more durable and malleable is called __________.

Possible Answers:

pasteurization

vulcanization

indoctrination

aberration

purification

Correct answer:

vulcanization

Explanation:

The process of curing rubber is called “vulcanization.” The purpose of vulcanization is to make rubber more durable and malleable, which allows it to be used for a wider variety of purposes. The technique of vulcanization, which involves the addition of sulfur, was developed in the nineteenth century by Charles Goodyear.

Example Question #9 : Urbanization

The first attempt to regulate factory conditions in Great Britain was the passage of the Cotton Mills and Factories Act of 1819, which established __________.

Possible Answers:

a maximum fourteen-hour work day for women and children

a maximum ten-hour work day for children

public schooling for children younger than ten whose parents were factory workers

a maximum twelve-hour work day for children

insurance and compensation in case of injuries sustained on the job

Correct answer:

a maximum twelve-hour work day for children

Explanation:

The nineteenth century in Britain witnessed the explosion of the Industrial Revolution, but it also witnessed the growth of a movement to reform political and social injustices exacerbated by the industrialization. The first successful attempt to regulate factory conditions was passed in 1819. It prohibited children younger than nine from working in factories and set a maximum twelve-hour work day for children aged between nine and sixteen.

Example Question #10 : Urbanization

The creation of __________ by Alfred Nobel revolutionized warfare.

Possible Answers:

weaponized chlorine gas

tanks

the Peace Corps

the Red Cross

dynamite

Correct answer:

dynamite

Explanation:

In 1867 Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and in doing so revolutionized the nature and destructive capabilities of warfare. It was the first highly powerful explosive that could be safely contained and detonated when required. It allowed for rapid innovations in weaponry, particularly in artillery. Nobel is said to have been distraught at the realization of his invention and founded the Nobel Prize as a way to contribute some positive energy to the world.

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