AP European History : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

The 1825 Decembrist Uprising in Russia was largely led by __________.

Possible Answers:

intellectuals who valued the traditional Russian way of life

peasants seeking to radically rearrange Russian society

young aristocrats who had been educated in Western Europe

middle-class artisans who sought a larger role in government

military officers wishing to eliminate the Tsarist monarchy

Correct answer:

military officers wishing to eliminate the Tsarist monarchy

Explanation:

The Decembrist Uprising began when Tsar Alexander I died with an unclear succession plan, leading to confusion in the Russian leadership. A group of Russian Army officers, calling themselves "The Union of Salvation," took the chance to try and overthrow the Tsarist regime entirely, promoting serious electoral and governmental reforms. All of the leaders of the revolt, who were called Decembrists for the month in which the revolt took place, were executed by Tsar Nicholas I in early 1826.

Example Question #2 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

The Second French Republic was created after __________

Possible Answers:

The Second World War

The Franco-Prussian War 

The French Revolution 

The fall of Napoleon 

The Revolution of 1848 

Correct answer:

The Revolution of 1848 

Explanation:

The Second French Republic was created in 1848, after the revolution of that same year. The revolution was primarily inspired by an uprising of the working classes against the rule of Louis Philippe; however, the Republic would only last until 1851 when it in turn would be overthrown by Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte. Louis-Napoleon was elected as the first President of the Second French Republic, but staged a coup to have himself declared Emperor Napoleon III, the first emperor of the Second French Empire.

Example Question #3 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

The Edict of Fontainebleau of 1685 was specifically targeted against the group known as __________.

Possible Answers:

Zwinglians

Puritans

Anabaptists

Huguenots

Lutherans

Correct answer:

Huguenots

Explanation:

The Edict of Fontainebleu was specifically used by King Louis XIV to drive the minority Protestant population of France out of the country. The Protestant Huguenots had been legally protected in Catholic France by the Edict of Nantes, signed by Henry IV in 1598; however, they faced certain kinds of persecution. The Edict of Fontainebleu took away all privileges, which led to hundreds of thousands of Huguenots leaving the country to move toward Protestant nations.

Example Question #4 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

Which of these statements about class structure in France after the Hundred Years’ War is most accurate?

Possible Answers:

The bourgeoise gained influence at the expense of the nobility.

The nobility gained influence at the expense of the clergy.

The clergy gained influence at the expense of the nobility.

The clergy gained influence at the expense of the bourgeoise.

The nobility gained influence at the expense of the monarchy.

Correct answer:

The bourgeoise gained influence at the expense of the nobility.

Explanation:

The Hundred Years’ War, fought between the English and the French, actually lasted for one hundred and sixteen years. Naturally, such a lengthy conflict exhausted the finances of wealthy aristocratic families of France, and as such, in the century that followed, the nobility declined in influence as the bourgeoise were welcomed (somewhat) into government and asked to finance the centralizing mission of the monarchy.

Example Question #5 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

The bourgeoise grew in influence in all of these countries during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries except in __________.

Possible Answers:

the Netherlands

France

Russia

England

Sweden

Correct answer:

Russia

Explanation:

In all of these countries, the emerging middle class was welcomed into government participation, albeit often in a very limited fashion, except in Russia, where the old order of feudalism and rule through the aristocracy persisted for several more generations.

Example Question #6 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

A self-sufficient peasantry emerged in France during the Napoleonic Era because __________.

Possible Answers:

Napoleon redistributed church lands to peasants and farmers

the Continental System made France the primary agricultural producer in Europe and enriched the peasantry

None of these answers are correct; the status of the peasantry declined during the Napoleonic Era.

Napoleon elevated the legal status of women and minorities in French society

the French government established a universal public education system

Correct answer:

Napoleon redistributed church lands to peasants and farmers

Explanation:

Napoleon is one of the greatest and most brutal conquerors in European history, but he is also one of the most important political reformers. His Code Napoléon became the backbone of legal codes across Europe, he created a meritocratic system in the French government, and he spread the ideals of the French revolution and nationalism around Europe. He also helped to elevate the status and self-sufficiency of the French peasant population. He reduced taxes on the peasantry and redistributed church lands (a large portion of the French countryside) into the hands of peasants and farmers.

Example Question #7 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

As well as extending suffrage rights to the industrial middle class, the Great Reform Bill of 1832 __________.

Possible Answers:

limited the maximum working hours for children to ten hours a day

further reduced the power of the monarchy

reapportioned representation in Parliament

redistributed monastic lands to aristocratic members of Parliament

extended universal religious tolerance to every citizen of Great Britain

Correct answer:

reapportioned representation in Parliament

Explanation:

The Great Reform Bill of 1832 is often considered to be the true beginning of universal suffrage in Britain, although it would be some time before the working class, minorities, and women were fully included in the electorate. As well as extending suffrage rights to the industrial middle class, it also got rid of the “rotten boroughs” that were so common around Britain. The last time representation in Parliament had been adjusted was the Glorious Revolution in 1688, and in the time that had passed since then, the demographic makeup of the country had changed significantly. Many of the boroughs that elected representatives no longer had more than a handful of people living there, whereas some urban areas had hundreds of thousands of people who had no representation. The Great Reform Bill of 1832 fixed this by reapportioning representation.

Example Question #8 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

Which of the following was not a demand of the working class Chartist movement of the 1830s and 1840s?

Possible Answers:

Universal suffrage

Public education

The removal of property qualifications for voting

A secret ballot

Representation of the working class in Parliament

Correct answer:

Universal suffrage

Explanation:

All of these were demands made by the Chartist movement except the demand for universal suffrage. The Chartists wanted universal male suffrage; even the radicals in the nineteenth century were rarely so daring as to demand female enfranchisement.

Example Question #9 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

During the Stuart Restoration, the political parties known as the Tories and the Whigs emerged in the British Parliament. Which of these statements about the Whigs is inaccurate?

Possible Answers:

They favored the supremacy of Parliament over the monarchy.

All of these statements are accurate.

They favored religious tolerance.

They were predominantly middle-class.

They were usually Puritans.

Correct answer:

All of these statements are accurate.

Explanation:

During the Stuart Restoration (1660-1689), the political parties of the Tories and the Whigs emerged in the British Parliament. The Whigs were generally middle-class Puritans who favored the supremacy of parliament over the monarchy and advocated for religious tolerance in Britain.

Example Question #10 : Social Groups; Races; Classes; Ethnicities

In the second half of the nineteenth century, these two famous British politicians battled constantly so that their respective parties could control the reforming process; the liberal Whigs were led by __________ and the conservative Tories were led by __________.

Possible Answers:

Robert Peel . . . Benjamin Disraeli

Benjamin Disraeli . . . William Gladstone

William Gladstone . . . Benjamin Disraeli

William Gladstone . . . Robert Peel

Robert Peel . . . William Gladstone

Correct answer:

William Gladstone . . . Benjamin Disraeli

Explanation:

During the second half of the nineteenth century Britain was able to avoid much of the revolution and instability that was so rife on the continent by addressing the reforming movement gradually. The two political parties at the time were the Whigs and the Tories. The Whigs were the liberal party who generally benefitted from any enlargement of the electorate, but the Tories wanted to control the reforming process nonetheless (probably to score political points with the electorate). The Whigs were led by William Gladstone and the Tories were led by Benjamin Disraeli, collectively the two men would serve as Prime Minister for more than twenty years.

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