AP European History : Sanitation and Health Care

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Sanitation And Health Care

In the nineteenth century, the persistent belief among officials was that cholera was spread by __________.

Possible Answers:

foul-smelling air

proximity to livestock

rotten meat

working in factories

contaminated water supplies

Correct answer:

foul-smelling air

Explanation:

Cholera proved to be one of the largest problems of the rapid urbanization and industrialization of the nineteenth century. Its spread was kept unchecked for two different but related reasons: its prevalence among the working poor and the incorrect beleif about its method of spreading. Most medical authorities of the time insisted it was caused by foul-smelling air in cities rather than the contaminated water supplies that actually spread cholera.

Example Question #2 : Sanitation And Health Care

Which of the following individuals is a British social reformer known for his attempts to improve sanitation and public health in urban Britain?

Possible Answers:

William Cockerill

Jeremy Bentham

Edwin Chadwick

Charles Dickens

Robert Peel

Correct answer:

Edwin Chadwick

Explanation:

Edwin Chadwick is a well-known British social reformer who was active during the Industrial Revolution. Among other achievements, he is credited with helping pass the Public Health Act of 1848. Chadwick was concerned with the social well-being of the poor in British cities, in particular with the sanitation and public health of factory life.

Example Question #3 : Sanitation And Health Care

Which of the following diseases was rife in European urban societies in the nineteenth century and is spread through contaminated water?

Possible Answers:

Smallpox

Polio

Syphilis

Bubonic Plague

Cholera

Correct answer:

Cholera

Explanation:

Cholera is an extremely deadly disease that was prevalent in urban European society during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is spread through contaminated water and causes death through dehydration. The disease, like many diseases, disproportionately targets the poor and those without access to clean water. Studies of the disease led to improvements in public health, sanitation, and water treatments. The disease is now mostly eradicated in the Western world, but continues to routinely devastate parts of the developing world.

Example Question #1 : Sanitation And Health Care

During the Middle Ages in Europe, health care was the dominant responsibility of this group.

Possible Answers:

Children

Physician's guild members

University-trained doctors

Men

Women

Correct answer:

Women

Explanation:

Despite being excluded from guilds and universities, the majority of caregivers in the Middle Ages were women, in particular family members and domestic servants of families.

Example Question #5 : Sanitation And Health Care

Which of the following individual's innovative work on sterilization and sanitation led to far fewer deaths during surgeries and in hospitals?

Possible Answers:

Louis Pasteur

Lord Byron

Joseph Lister

Michael Faraday

Henry Cavendish

Correct answer:

Joseph Lister

Explanation:

Joseph Lister was a British surgeon in the nineteenth century who pioneered antiseptic surgery and greatly improved the safety and survival rate of surgeries. He expanded upon Louis Pasteur's ideas on “germ theory,” applying Pasteur’s theories to surgery and hospital experiences.

Example Question #6 : Sanitation And Health Care

Edward Jenner is notable for __________.

Possible Answers:

popularizing the pasteurization process

introducing the potato to Europe

developing the first polio vaccine

eradicating the plague from European society

developing the first smallpox vaccine

Correct answer:

developing the first smallpox vaccine

Explanation:

Edward Jenner developed the first smallpox vaccine in 1798. His revelation rested on an observation that milkmaids who had caught cowpox did not ever contract the far more virulent and deleterious smallpox. So, Jenner started inoculating test subjects with cowpox and determined that it worked as a vaccine against smallpox. This invention would dramatically alter life for European people and contributed to the skyrocketing population growth of the next two centuries.

Example Question #7 : Sanitation And Health Care

The observation of microorganisms for the first time in the __________ century contributed immensely to the advancement of medical science.

Possible Answers:

seventeenth

twentieth

fifteenth

nineteenth

eighteenth

Correct answer:

seventeenth

Explanation:

Microorganisms were observed for the first time in the seventeenth century by the Dutch scientist Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. This opened up the world of the microscopic to doctors and medical scientists for the first time and would eventually contribute to massive advancements in medical understanding and practice.

Example Question #8 : Sanitation And Health Care

Andreas Vesalius is most closely associated with which branch of medical study?

Possible Answers:

Anatomy

Psychiatry

Microbiology

Physiology

Genetics

Correct answer:

Anatomy

Explanation:

Andreas Vesalius was a Belgian physician who wrote a very important book on human anatomy called On the Fabric of the Human Body in the early sixteenth century. Vesalius produced the first accurate and detailed depiction of the human body in European history and greatly advanced the sum of medical understanding.

Example Question #9 : Sanitation And Health Care

The Germ Theory of disease propounded by Louis Pasteur replaced this earlier theory of disease which stated that bad smells in the air caused diseases.

Possible Answers:

The Vitriolic Theory

The Gallic Theory

The Miasmatic Theory

Aristotelian Medicine

The Hippocratic Theory

Correct answer:

The Miasmatic Theory

Explanation:

Up until the nineteenth century, when Louis Pasteur revolutionized our understanding of what causes diseases, it was commonly believed throughout Europe that noxious smells in the air caused and spread diseases. This theory was called the Miasmatic Theory.

Example Question #2 : Sanitation And Health Care

The introduction of this crop into European society dramatically improved nutrition and led to a marked population growth.

Possible Answers:

Wheat

Barley

Tomatoes

Potatoes

Corn

Correct answer:

Potatoes

Explanation:

The introduction of the potato in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries dramatically improved nutrition for the poorest people in European society. Potatoes can be grown in highly variable climates. This improved nutrition in turn contributed to a massive population growth in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, though a potato famine would doom much of the Irish population in the nineteenth century.

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