AP European History : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Which event in the twentieth century most dramatically accelerated the movement towards female suffrage in Europe?

Possible Answers:

World War One

The Great Depression

The formation of the United Nations

World War Two

The formation of the League of Nations

Correct answer:

World War One

Explanation:

The female suffrage movement really took off in the middle of the nineteenth century, but was unable to gain much ground in European society until early in the twentieth century. The turning point was the outbreak of World War One, when so many men were forced away from their workplaces to fight, and die, on the battlefield. After the women of this time period were given new responsibilities, they demanded new rights to go with them, and many governments found that they no longer could withhold the right to vote from women. The majority of European governments extended the right to vote to women either during or shortly after World War One; however, notable late adopters include France in 1944, Italy in 1947, and Switzerland in 1971.

Example Question #2 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

Under Napoleon’s Civil Code, women were __________.

Possible Answers:

allowed to vote if they had at least one male child

deprived of the rights they had previously enjoyed and placed under extensive legal control of their husbands

forbidden from congregating in public and forced to spend most of their lives in the home

allowed to vote if they had taken part in, or supported the, French Revolution, or if their husbands had died in the service of France

greatly liberated and afforded legal protection from the abuses of their husbands

Correct answer:

deprived of the rights they had previously enjoyed and placed under extensive legal control of their husbands

Explanation:

Under Napoleon’s Civil Code, the gains made by the previous generations of women were reversed and women were deprived of many of the rights they had temporarily enjoyed, such as the right to freely divorce and own property. France returned to the extremely patriarchal society of the Ancien Regime.

Example Question #3 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

French Protestants, inspired by Calvin, were called __________.

Possible Answers:

Anabaptists

Huguenots

Bourgeois

Presbyterians

Puritans

Correct answer:

Huguenots

Explanation:

Protestantism did not take quick and dramatic root in France, as it did in many other European countries during the Protestant Reformation; however, by the middle of the sixteenth century, roughly an eighth of the French population was a “Huguenot,” or a French Calvinist. A series of proclamations encouraging, then revoking, toleration of religious freedom came to a head at the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, when the Catholic population of the city, urged on by certain members of government, massacred the Huguenot population.

Example Question #4 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

The establishment of the English Bill of Rights occurred immediately after __________.

Possible Answers:

The English Civil War

The War of the Roses

the unification with Scotland

The French Revolution

The Glorious Revolution

Correct answer:

The Glorious Revolution

Explanation:

Throughout much of the seventeenth century, the relationship between Parliament, the people, and the monarchy was fraught to say the least. It first came to a head in the 1640s with the English Civil War and the execution of Charles I; however, when the English people tired of Cromwell and his Puritan government they invited the monarchy back into power. Once again the monarch (this time James II) managed to offend the people and Parliament by attempting to encourage toleration of Catholics in the Kingdom. This led Parliament to effectively “invite” William to invade (somewhat peacefully) from the Netherlands and take the English crown for himself. As James II fled and there was almost no bloodshed, it is called The Glorious Revolution in British parlance. Once William and Mary were established as ruling monarchs of England, Parliament was in no mood to court the absolute power of Kings again and insisted on the establishment of the English Bill of Rights. The Bill of Rights limits the power of the Crown and describes the powers reserved for Parliament.

Example Question #5 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

The Revolutions of 1848 were largely similar in arguing for __________.

Possible Answers:

creation of pan-European organizations

renewal of old monarchies

full redistribution of wealth

more democratic governments

larger control of governments by the church

Correct answer:

more democratic governments

Explanation:

Throughout 1848, revolutions spread through France, the German States, Poland, Austria, Hungary, and Denmark. While all stemming from different internal causes, the revolutionaries were largely arguing for universal suffrage, liberal governments, and widespread democratic ideals. The revolutions ended a number of monarchies and enacted some reforms, but were largely reversed by reactionary movements within just a few years.

Example Question #6 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

All of these theories on government emerged during the Enlightenment except __________.

Possible Answers:

checks and balances

the consent of the governed

the Divine Right of Kings

the social contract

All of these emerged during the Enlightenment.

Correct answer:

the Divine Right of Kings

Explanation:

All of these theories emerged during the Enlightenment except for the Divine Right of Kings, which had its origins in the autocratic monarchies of the centuries that preceded the Enlightenment. The Divine Right of Kings stated that the right of the king to rule was divinely ordained by God and that to resist the king was therefore to resist the will of God.

Example Question #7 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

This concept emerged during the Enlightenment as a theocratic application of natural law.

Possible Answers:

Agnosticism

Deism

Polytheism

Atheism

Monotheism

Correct answer:

Deism

Explanation:

Deism is the belief in a “watchmaker god,” a god who created the universe with a series of natural laws and then sat back and allowed the development of the universe to unfold. Deism emerged during the Enlightenment as a theocratic application of Enlightenment theories on natural law. It was widely embraced by Enlightenment thinkers, including Newton, Thomas Jefferson, and Voltaire and involved the rejection of the established Christian order in Europe.

Example Question #8 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

The persecution of Jews and Muslims in Spain in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries was primarily undertaken in order to __________.

Possible Answers:

appease the French monarch who threatened heretical Spain with war

curry favor with the Papacy and the other Catholic monarchs of Europe

ensure loyalty during the Spanish wars against the French and British

minimize the debts owed by the crown to the merchant classes within Spain

develop a Spanish national identity synonymous with Catholicism

Correct answer:

develop a Spanish national identity synonymous with Catholicism

Explanation:

For centuries, Spain had been a region divided into various kingdoms, and had a famously wealthy polyglot society. Beginning with the reign of Isabella and Ferdinand over a united Spain, however, the Jews and Muslims were persecuted and forced to flee the country. The primary motivation was to centralize power under the new Spanish monarchs and develop a cohesive Spanish national identity that was centered around Catholicism.

Example Question #9 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

During the reign of King Louis XIV of France, the French kingdom racked up huge debts. This would contribute to the outbreak of revolution a century later because the __________ was the only part of the population subject to taxation in order to pay off these debts.

Possible Answers:

nobility 

Second Estate 

Third Estate

clergy 

First Estate 

Correct answer:

Third Estate

Explanation:

King Louis XIV’s many wars and extravagant building works (like the palace at Versailles) contributed to the “golden era” of France, but they also mired the whole country in exorbitant debt. In French society in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, only the Third Estate (the peasantry and the lower middle class) was subject to taxation. As the debt kept climbing, so did the rate of taxation of the poorest in French society. This would directly contribute to the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Example Question #10 : Rights; Liberties; Persecution

In the waning years of the English Civil War, Oliver Cromwell and his forces committed numerous atrocities in this country in punishment for its support of the Crown.

Possible Answers:

Belgium

Wales

Portugal

Ireland

France

Correct answer:

Ireland

Explanation:

During the English Civil War, the Irish forces primarily supported the crown, the nobility, and Catholicism. In trying to suppress this support, Cromwell and his forces committed numerous atrocities and massacres in Ireland that would have dramatic ramifications in the next three hundred years of British-Irish relations. Some historians would contend that these atrocities are still very influential today.

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