AP European History : Nationalism

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Nationalism

The Chios Massacre enflamed the nationalist ambitions of which of the following groups?

Possible Answers:

The Fins

The Greeks

The Slavs

The Serbs

The Dutch

Correct answer:

The Greeks

Explanation:

The Chios Massacre took place in 1822 when troops from the Ottoman Empire massacred much of the civilian population of the Greek island of Chios during the Greek War of Independence. The territory that comprises modern-day Greece had been under Ottoman control for several centuries when Greek nationalism flared up in the nineteenth century. By the 1820s, this nationalism manifested itself in open revolt. The revolution was initially quelled by the Ottoman Empire, but the violent means that the Ottoman Empire employed enflamed the Greek people and was widely condemned by the international community. The major powers of Western Europe soon intervened, and in 1832, the Greek nation declared independence.

Example Question #2 : Nationalism

The German policy of Kulturkampf, initiated during the rule of Otto von Bismarck, was designed to __________.

Possible Answers:

dramatically weaken the influence of the Catholic church in Germany

weaken the power of the German monarchy

incorporate the territories of Alsace-Lorraine and Schleswig-Holstein into the German state

educate young German children about their national history and cultural identity

extend German control into Poland and Denmark

Correct answer:

dramatically weaken the influence of the Catholic church in Germany

Explanation:

The German policy of Kulturkampf was undertaken during the reign of Otto von Bismarck in the 1870s. Its primary purpose was to dramatically weaken the influence of the Catholic Church in Germany and to secularize German society. At the time, roughly two-thirds of Germany was Protestant, but a powerful minority, particularly in formally Polish territory, still followed Catholicism. Bismarck’s primary goal was to strengthen the German government and unify German national identity at the expense of the Catholic faith.

Example Question #3 : Nationalism

The Compromise of 1867 __________.

Possible Answers:

formalized the establishment of a dual monarchy in the Austro-Hungarian Empire

ended the Franco-Prussian War with favorable terms for Prussia and temporarily destabilized the balance of power in Europe

allowed for the division of Austro-Hungary into several distinct ethnically based nation-states

granted independence to several Balkan states formerly long established as territories of the Ottoman Empire

allowed Russia to establish a Slavic state in the Balkans

Correct answer:

formalized the establishment of a dual monarchy in the Austro-Hungarian Empire

Explanation:

Before 1848, the Kingdom of Hungary had long been a territory of the Holy Roman Empire, and then later the Austrian Empire, but was nominally governed independently of both. Following the failed Hungarian rebellion of 1848, the Kingdom of Hungary was suppressed by the Austrian Empire, but nationalist desires were difficult to eradicate. Following the defeat of Austria at the hands of Prussia in the Austro-Prussian War, the Austrian Empire lost much of its influence in Europe and in a desperate attempt to redefine itself in the wake of rising nationalism agreed to the Compromise of 1867, which created a dual monarchy in Austria-Hungary.

Example Question #4 : Nationalism

Which European peace treaty is often seen as the beginning of nationalism and the legal authority of sovereign states over their own territory?

Possible Answers:

The Peace of Utrecht

The Peace of Westphalia

The Treaty of Versailles

The Peace of Augsburg

The Berlin Conference

Correct answer:

The Peace of Westphalia

Explanation:

The term “Westphalian sovereignty” refers to the idea that each independent state has sovereignty and control over all the territory within its border, exclusive of any external powers. This idea underpins the nature of modern statehood and first emerged, or rather was first codified, in the Peace of Westphalia, which ended the devastating Thirty Years’ War. Due to European expansion around the world in the centuries following, the Peace of Westphalia's “Westphalian sovereignty” is generally universal in its application.

Example Question #5 : Nationalism

The term “irredentism” refers to __________.

Possible Answers:

the bottom-up formation of nationalist identity, often encouraged by artistic or intellectual movements

the belief that a territory within another country’s borders is part of a nation that exists outside, or independent of, those borders

the theory that popular or political nationalism is likely to lead to a declaration of war if it is allowed to go unchecked

None of the other answers is correct.

the belief that only through extra nationalism can Europe ever hope to preserve a lasting peace

Correct answer:

the belief that a territory within another country’s borders is part of a nation that exists outside, or independent of, those borders

Explanation:

The term “irredentism” is used to describe the belief that a territory within another country’s borders should actually be part of a nation that exists either outside of or independent of those borders. Generally, in European history, it refers to a territory that was once part of a nation, such as France with Alsace-Lorraine or Germany with Austria, that has been lost in conflict and which the losing nation desires to reclaim. It is one of the more dangerous and prominent forms of European nationalism because it so often leads to war in European history.

Example Question #6 : Nationalism

In the nineteenth century all of these ethnic groups within the Austro-Hungarian Empire expressed nationalistic claims EXCEPT for __________.

Possible Answers:

Magyars

Poles

Serbs

Romanians

Czechs

Correct answer:

Poles

Explanation:

At the height of its reach, the Austro-Hungarian Empire occupied much of Central Europe and extended south into the Balkans and East into Eastern Europe. It was composed of several distinct ethnic groups, all of whom had a shared history, language, and cultural identity. This had long been the composition of the empire, but with rising nationalism in the nineteenth century, this became a problem that was more difficult to manage. All of these ethnic groups expressed nationalist ambitions in the nineteenth century except for the Poles, who lived outside of the Austro-Hungarian Empire and were at the time primarily controlled by Russia and Germany. Each of these ethnic groups currently has its own nation-state, with all of them being self-explanatory except perhaps the Magyars (Hungary).

Example Question #7 : Nationalism

The Act of Union of 1801 __________.

Possible Answers:

incorporated Ireland into the United Kingdom

incorporated Wales into the United Kingdom

incorporated Scotland into the United Kingdom

incorporated Alsace-Lorraine into the French Republic

incorporated Nice and Savoy into the French Republic

Correct answer:

incorporated Ireland into the United Kingdom

Explanation:

The Act of Union of 1801 dissolved the Irish Parliament and formally ended any semblance of Irish independence. The territory of Ireland was incorporated into the United Kingdom, now called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The Act of Union may be understood as a British government reaction to the Irish Rebellion of 1798 and also a response to the French Revolution a decade earlier, both of which inflamed Irish nationalism.

Example Question #8 : Nationalism

Which Italian Kingdom was the primary driving force behind Italian unification?

Possible Answers:

Naples

Sicily

Piedmont-Sardinia

Tuscany

The Papal States

Correct answer:

Piedmont-Sardinia

Explanation:

The Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was one of the most influential and economically prosperous by the time the movement towards Italian unification began in the mid-nineteenth century. Led by Victor Emmanuel and Camillo di Cavour, the Kingdom was the primary driving force behind Italian unification. In 1861, the Kingdom of Sardinia annexed all the other territories that comprise modern-day Italy into the Kingdom of Italy.

Example Question #9 : Nationalism

Nineteenth-century European nationalists known as irredentists sought __________.

Possible Answers:

the creation of European coalitions to adjudicate disputes between nations

the overthrow of monarchies in favor of parliamentary democracies

the immediate withdrawal of European nations from overseas colonies in Africa and Asia

the reunification of "lost" territories with the nation with which they shared ethnic, linguistic, and cultural similarities

the breakup of larger nations into smaller, easier-to-administrate ones based on geographical regions

Correct answer:

the reunification of "lost" territories with the nation with which they shared ethnic, linguistic, and cultural similarities

Explanation:

"Irredentism" comes from the Italian phrase "Italia irredenta," which means "unredeemed Italy" and referred to those culturally and linguistically Italian regions ruled by Austria that Italian nationalists wanted to be part of a Unified Italy. Irredentism was also a key component in German unification, French nationalism, and pan-Slavic movements. Remarkably for the period, irredentism also had few ties to particular forms of government, since it was tied to ethnic, cultural, and linguistic affinities.

Example Question #10 : Nationalism

Which of the following pairs matches a political figure correctly with the nationalist political movement for which he or she advocated?

Possible Answers:

Giuseppe Garibaldi; Italian Unification

Tsar Nicholas I; Zionism

Marie Antoinette; French Revolution

Otto von Bismarck; Polish Independence

Empress Maria Theresa; Serbian Separatism

Correct answer:

Giuseppe Garibaldi; Italian Unification

Explanation:

Garibaldi was one of the most famous revolutionaries of the mid-nineteenth century. His revolutionary career began in South America as an agitator and soldier in favor of various republican causes. He returned to Europe in the midst of the revolutions of 1848. He raised an army of volunteers to fight the Austrian Empire in order to free Northern Italy so that the entire Italian peninsula could be unified. Garibaldi was one of the central figures of the Italian Risorgimento, which resulted in the creation of the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

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