AP European History : Literacy; Communication; Education

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Literacy; Communication; Education

Universities in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries experienced all of the following changes EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

a development of new religious ideas and philosophies

an increased reliance on traditional Catholic chuch teachings

a refocus on classical Greek and Latin texts

a stress on the individual as unit of study

a blending of Platonic philosophy and Christianity into a new form of theology

Correct answer:

an increased reliance on traditional Catholic chuch teachings

Explanation:

In the late fifteenth century, Italian scholars developed a new form of education that they branded "humanism," which quickly spread across all of Europe and helped ignite both the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation. The start of humanism began with the rediscovery of Latin and Greek texts, which prompted new ideas and focuses, including a Christian neoplatonism, a focus on the individual, and a challenge to traditional religion.

Example Question #2 : Literacy; Communication; Education

In the Encomienda system, Spanish colonial administrators were expected to provide what service to the native population?

Possible Answers:

Introduce them to capitalism and democracy

Ensure they were healthy and well-fed

Educate them in the Christian faith

Provide public education for the children

Give them the opportunity to own property

Correct answer:

Educate them in the Christian faith

Explanation:

Under the Spanish system of Encomienda, Spanish colonial administrators were granted by the Spanish crown specific percentages of the native population of their territory to work in slave-like conditions. In exchange, the Spanish colonial administrators were expected to educate the overworked and suffering native people in the Christian faith.

Example Question #1 : Literacy; Communication; Education

Which of the following individuals is a writer who was so influential that he is sometimes referred to as the “father of the Spanish language"?

Possible Answers:

Blake

Picasso

Cervantes

Hemingway

Don Juan

Correct answer:

Cervantes

Explanation:

Miguel Cervantes wrote the (arguably) most famous piece of Spanish literature, Don Quixote, in the early seventeenth century. Cervantes' influence on the Spanish language can be compared to that of Shakespeare on the English language—modern-day Spanish would be near-unrecognizable without his impact.  

Example Question #2 : Literacy; Communication; Education

Who was the author of "Mein Kampf," which served as both an autobiography and a political manifesto?

Possible Answers:

Adolf Hitler

Vladimir Lenin

Benito Mussolini

Joseph Stalin

Karl Marx

Correct answer:

Adolf Hitler

Explanation:

Adolf Hitler wrote the manifesto, Mein Kampf, or "My Struggle," in which he outlined his political ideology and vision for Germany. The second of two volumes was published in 1926.

Example Question #3 : Literacy; Communication; Education

Which Scottish economist advocated private enterprise, free trade, and lassiez-faire economics in his 1776 classic titled, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations.

Possible Answers:

John Maynard Keynes

Adam Smith

John Law

Charles Darwin

Sigmund Freud

Correct answer:

Adam Smith

Explanation:

Scottish economist Adam Smith advocated private enterprise, free trade, and lassiez-faire economics in his classic work popularly known as The Wealth of Nations (1776).

Example Question #5 : Literacy; Communication; Education

The Luther Bible became more widespread than other vernacular translations of the Bible thanks to __________.

Possible Answers:

the readability of Luther's formatting of Biblical books

the easier accessibility of books because of the introduction of the printing press

the ease of transcribing the work by monks in monasteries

the hatred of Latin among everyday Catholic parishioners

Luther's clear and easy use of vernacular German

Correct answer:

the easier accessibility of books because of the introduction of the printing press

Explanation:

The Reformer Martin Luther was not the first person to try and create a Bible in a vernacular language instead of the Latin Vulgate used by the Catholic Church. Luther's translation was more successful, though, because he had the advantage of having printing presses that could produce more and more versions for easier access by parishioners. The German in Luther's Bible was a regional Saxon dialect, but over time Luther's Bible translation helped standardize modern German.

Example Question #4 : Literacy; Communication; Education

Cyrus Field is notable for __________.

Possible Answers:

developing a vaccination for polio

inventing the method of vulcanizing rubber to make it more durable

financing the first usage of the assembly line in a factory

pioneering a process by which steel could be produced from iron ore

founding the company that laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable

Correct answer:

founding the company that laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable

Explanation:

Cyrus Field was an American inventor and businessman who, along with other financiers and pioneers, founded the Atlantic Telegraph Company. In 1858, they laid the first transatlantic telegraph cable that connected Great Britain with North America.

Example Question #5 : Literacy; Communication; Education

Which of these inventors is incorrectly paired with his invention?

Possible Answers:

James Watt - Telegraph

Alexander Graham Bell - Telephone

Richard Arkwright - Water frame

Jethro Tull - Seed drill

John Kay - Flying shuttle

Correct answer:

James Watt - Telegraph

Explanation:

James Watt did not invent the telegraph; that honor belongs to Samuel Morse, who also developed Morse Code. James Watt did, however, invent the first reliably functioning and efficient steam engine.

Example Question #8 : Literacy; Communication; Education

__________ is remembered for helping to develop the modern form of the essay.

Possible Answers:

Descartes

Marlowe

Erasmus

Montaigne

Boccaccio

Correct answer:

Montaigne

Explanation:

Michel de Montaigne was a French writer who lived in the sixteenth century (1533-1592). He is best remembered for developing the modern essay form. Montaigne wrote short treatments of a wide variety of topics, from historical figures to human nature in general. In his essays, he advocated for rationalism and logical reasoning and demonstrated these traits with the structure and style of his work.

Example Question #6 : Literacy; Communication; Education

Which of the following important works of the Renaissance period was written by Thomas à Kempis?

Possible Answers:

The Canterbury Tales

On the Solitary Life

Oration on the Dignity of Man

Imitation of Christ

The Divine Comedy

Correct answer:

Imitation of Christ

Explanation:

In the fifteenth century, Thomas à Kempis helped spread the ideas of mysticism by writing in the vernacular German language. His most famous work, Imitation of Christ, is an argument in favor of each individual communing directly with God and being able to experience divinity without the assistance of conventional religious structures.

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