AP European History : Industrialization

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Industrialization

Which of the following inventions was NOT developed in Britain during the eighteenth century?

Possible Answers:

The power loom

The cotton gin

The spinning jenny

The flying shuttle

The water frame

Correct answer:

The cotton gin

Explanation:

The driving force of the Industrial Revolution's early years was the English textile manufacturing industry, which gained phenomenal success on the back of a number of innovations to the production methods used for textiles. Included among such British inventions were the spinning jenny, the water frame, the power loom, and the flying shuttle, all of which mechanized and sped up the process of weaving and producing cloth. The cotton gin, which sped along the process by which cotton was separated from its seeds, was an American invention of the 1790s.

Example Question #2 : Industrialization

During the Industrial Revolution, the Luddites were famous for __________.

Possible Answers:

resisting the introduction of machine-driven production in Britain

their attempts to reform the political system in Britain to provide greater enfranchisement for the working classes

persecuting the Catholic population of Britain

believing that the advent of the Industrial Revolution was a sign of the impending apocalypse

working incredibly long hours in appalling factory conditions

Correct answer:

resisting the introduction of machine-driven production in Britain

Explanation:

In the initial years of the Industrial Revolution in England, many members of the working class were resistant to the widespread changes being wrought by the introduction of machine-driven production. Many unskilled and skilled workers alike feared for their livelihood and believed that factory conditions were much worse than the life they had previously enjoyed. The Luddites were nineteenth-century English textile workers who resisted the introduction of the factory system. Famously, they even physically attacked and destroyed machinery in many factories. The British government responded by enacting harsh laws against anybody found guilty of destroying industrial machinery and by engaging in show trials, executions, and penal deportations of those found guilty.

Example Question #3 : Industrialization

Which of these was a direct consequence of increased industrialization in Europe in the nineteenth century?

Possible Answers:

Increased nationalism

Decreased economic cooperation

Increased religious conflict

Decreased colonial ambition

Increased class conflict

Correct answer:

Increased class conflict

Explanation:

The movement towards industrialized and urban societies in nineteenth-century Europe led to a widespread increase in class conflict. The poor were forced by economic necessity to work long, arduous, and dangerous shifts to manufacture products that seemed only to make their living situations worse. This led, amongst other things, to the rise of Liberalism and Socialism in Europe.

Example Question #4 : Industrialization

The Combination Acts concerned __________.

Possible Answers:

the ill-treatment of workers in the factory system

the extension of voting rights to the growing middle class created by the Industrial Revolution

the protection of British agricultural industry in the face of foreign competition

the ability of workers to strike and form unions

the extension of voting rights to the working class who were dissatisfied with life during the Industrial Revolution

Correct answer:

the ability of workers to strike and form unions

Explanation:

The original Combination Acts were passed in Great Britain in 1799 and 1800 to prohibit workers from forming unions and to prevent workers from striking at a time when the British government was engaged in war. The Acts were repealed in 1824, but a series of debilitating strikes followed, and the British government reinstated the policy the following year. The primary goal of the acts was to prohibit the formation of unions and to limit the ability of workers to campaign collectively for better wages and treatment through coordinated strikes.

Example Question #2 : Industrialization

Which of these European nations was the second to begin industrializing its economy after Great Britain?

Possible Answers:

France

Belgium

Germany

Sweden

The Netherlands

Correct answer:

Belgium

Explanation:

The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, but by 1807, a British entrepreneur named William Cockerill had created a textile-machine-manufacturing business in Belgium that helped spread the Industrial Revolution first around Belgium, then to France, and finally around the European continent. Cockerill was particularly important because at the time, Britain was engaged in a war with Napoleonic France and most of Europe was cut off from British industrial production and innovation.

Example Question #6 : Industrialization

Which of these industries was the first to be revolutionized by the Industrial Revolution?

Possible Answers:

Ship building

Textiles

Farming

Mining

Railroad construction

Correct answer:

Textiles

Explanation:

The farming industry had already been revolutionized by the Agricultural Revolution in the eighteenth century, so the first industry to be revolutionized by the Industrial Revolution was the textile industry. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, textiles were extremely laborious and inefficient (by our standards) to produce and were primarily manufactured by family units called “cottage industries”; however, with the introduction of machinery, the production of textiles skyrocketed.

Example Question #7 : Industrialization

German steel production exceeded that of Britain by __________.

Possible Answers:

1860

1840

1880

1900

1920

Correct answer:

1900

Explanation:

The Industrial Revolution, as you likely know, began in Great Britain at the dawn of the nineteenth century; however, it was relatively slow to take hold in Germany (apart from Prussia) due to the disunified nature of the German-speaking world until Prussian-led German Unification in 1871. Following unification, the German government embarked on a massive project of economic and industrial overhaul that led to the German Industrial Revolution, particularly in the production of steel, which surpassed the British production of steel by the turn of the twentieth century. Germany and the United States would be the dominant industrial powers of the early twentieth century.

Example Question #8 : Industrialization

All of these contributed to the Industrial Revolution occurring first in Great Britain EXCEPT for __________.

Possible Answers:

the great capital wealth of the British Empire

the rising population and surplus of workers created by the Agricultural Revolution

favorable government policies designed to support industrialists and protect innovators

plentiful reserves of coal and iron

All of these contributed to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.

Correct answer:

All of these contributed to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain.

Explanation:

All of these reasons contributed to the emergence of the Industrial Revolution first in Great Britain. At the dawn of the nineteenth century, the British Empire extended around the globe, and British society had grown rich from its banking and trading policies. Furthermore, the British government enacted favorable policies that encouraged innovation in Britain by legally protecting inventions and patents. Additionally, Britain had plentiful reserves of coal and iron that were used to fuel the Industrial Revolution. Finally, the Agricultural Revolution of the eighteenth century had greatly reduced the number of people who needed to work the fields to support the population. This led to a rise in population and a surge in the number of workers who moved to the cities in search of employment.

Example Question #3 : Industrialization

The construction of a ship canal in the late nineteenth century led to the emergence of __________ as a major port city of Great Britain and contributed to the decline of __________.

Possible Answers:

Liverpool . . . Manchester

Manchester . . . Liverpool

Bristol . . . Birmingham

Cardiff . . . Swansea

Birmingham . . . Bristol

Correct answer:

Manchester . . . Liverpool

Explanation:

For much of the nineteenth century, Manchester and Liverpool were both major centers of the Industrial Revolution; however, Manchester was thirty miles inland and companies in Liverpool controlled the access to raw resources that arrived via the port. In an attempt to overcome what they viewed as excessive charges, the companies of Manchester sought to build the Manchester Ship Canal to allow goods to be transported directly to Manchester, bypassing the city of Liverpool. The canal was completed in 1894 and led almost immediately to the rise of Manchester and the decline of Liverpool as industrial and economic powerhouses.

Example Question #4 : Industrialization

The harsh working conditions of the Factory System in England during the Industrial Revolution led to __________.

Possible Answers:

social and political reform

rebellion in the English Civil War

an economic recession

the rise of atheism

a decline in British imperial power

Correct answer:

social and political reform

Explanation:

Life for factory workers during the Industrial Revolution was grueling and extremely harsh. Many people worked six days a week, for fourteen hours a day, in cramped and unhealthy conditions for little pay. Work was dangerous, and if you were injured and unable to continue working you were given no compensation. From about 1830 onwards, the nineteenth century in Britain was defined by constant social and political reform. Working conditions were slowly improved, and political suffrage rights were expanded to more and more men.

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