AP European History : Domestic and Foreign Policies

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

The so-called "Auld Alliance" against the Kingdom of England in the early modern period refers to the formal and informal friendly relations between __________.

Possible Answers:

Ireland and Scotland

France and Scotland

Scotland and Denmark

France and Ireland

France and Spain

Correct answer:

France and Scotland

Explanation:

The "Auld Alliance" was a later term to denote the era between 1295, when John Balliol of Scotland and Philip IV of France formed an alliance against Edward I of England, and 1603, when James VI of Scotland united the crowns of Scotland and England as James I of England. The alliance was based on each country's long-standing issues with England, which often drew one country into the other's conflicts with the English monarchy.

Example Question #2 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

Which of the following did NOT contribute to the decline of Spain following its sixteenth-century golden age?

Possible Answers:

Spain's lack of success in establishing successful, lucrative colonies during "the Age of Exploration"

The expulsion of middle-class Jews and Muslims from Spain due to the Inquisition

The revolt in the Netherlands against Spain in the late sixteenth century 

Heavy inflation, possibly resulting from the silver bullion flooding in from Spain's colonies

Spain's ongoing war against England in the late sixteenth century

Correct answer:

Spain's lack of success in establishing successful, lucrative colonies during "the Age of Exploration"

Explanation:

Following the reign of Philip II, Spain went into a decline after experiencing a "siglo de oro" (golden century). The expulsion of Jews and Muslims may have contributed. Spain began to experience heavy inflation during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; a growing population and demand most likely contributed to this inflation, and some historians believe that increased silver bullion imports from Spain's colonies further contributed. Finally, Spain's involvement in religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries contributed to its decline, in part because they were so costly. In Spain's war against England, the famed Spanish Armada was defeated in 1588, though the war continued to drag on. Additionally, the Spanish-controlled Netherlands were in revolt through the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, culminating in a free Dutch Republic in 1648. Note, however, that Spain's exploration and colonization efforts during the sixteenth century were highly successful, with many colonies in North and South America, as well as the Philippines in Asia.

Example Question #3 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

The Soviet Union policy of glasnost was designed to __________.

Possible Answers:

restructure the Soviet economy by allowing some capitalist reforms

allow greater autonomy for the Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe

provide transparency of government actions by loosening restrictions on freedom of press

reduce the number of nuclear weapons held in the Soviet Union

reach a detente with the United States and the governments of Western Europe

Correct answer:

provide transparency of government actions by loosening restrictions on freedom of press

Explanation:

The Soviet policy of glasnost was initiated in 1985 during the administration of Mikhail Gorbachev. It was designed to provide openness and transparency in government by loosening the previously tight restrictions on freedom of the press. It was accompanied by perestroika, a restructuring of the Soviet economy to provide rudimentary capitalism.

Example Question #4 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

The Paris Charter of 1990 attempted to __________.

Possible Answers:

create a unified European currency and provide open borders across the continent

reinvigorate the conflict of the Cold War to ensure the demise of communism in Europe and the Soviet Union

repudiate the authority of the Catholic church in the affairs of modern European states

integrate the nations of Eastern Europe into the ideological framework of Western Europe

reform the European Economic Commission and exclude those countries that had recently gained independence from the Soviet Union

Correct answer:

integrate the nations of Eastern Europe into the ideological framework of Western Europe

Explanation:

The Paris Charter of 1990 was an attempt by the governments of Western Europe, the United States, and Canada to seize upon the demise of the Soviet Union and ensure the transition of Eastern European countries into the new world order. The nations of Western Europe wanted to integrate the newly-independent nations of Eastern Europe into their ideological framework of capitalism, democracy, and individual liberty.

Example Question #5 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

Perestroika and glasnost were two political reforms initiated in the Soviet Union during the administration of __________.

Possible Answers:

Leonid Brezhnev

Vladimir Lenin

Nikita Khrushchev

Mikhail Gorbachev

Josef Stalin

Correct answer:

Mikhail Gorbachev

Explanation:

Perestroika and glasnost were two reform movements initiated during the last communist administration to govern the Soviet Union, led by Mikhail Gorbachev. Perestroika was the name given to the policy of economic reform that allowed for the development of rudimentary capitalism, and glasnost was the policy of political reform designed to provide openness and governmental transparency.

Example Question #6 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

Which of these was not a domestic policy of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher?

Possible Answers:

Lowering the tax rate for wealthy Britons

Ending rising inflation.

All of these were domestic policies of Margaret Thatcher.

Limiting the power of trade unions

Scaling back social welfare programs

Correct answer:

All of these were domestic policies of Margaret Thatcher.

Explanation:

Margaret Thatcher was the leader of the British Conservative Party for much of the 1980s. Her policy of Thatcherism defined British conservatism at the time. She wanted to scale back Britain’s welfare state and lower taxes for the wealthiest people in Britain. She did a great deal to fix the British economy, but is widely despised in many sections of British society for her policies that greatly harmed the British working class and the British welfare state.

Example Question #7 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

Which of these countries is the most enthusiastic and active contributor to the prosperity of the European Union?

Possible Answers:

Germany

Switzerland

France

Great Britain

Italy

Correct answer:

Germany

Explanation:

Whilst the European Union frequently divides public opinion in all of these countries, support in Germany is usually much stronger than it is in France, Great Britain, and Italy. Switzerland, famous for its neutrality, is not even a member of the European Union.

Example Question #8 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

Which of these countries supported Moroccan independence during the First Moroccan Crisis?

Possible Answers:

Russia

Italy

Germany

France

Great Britain

Correct answer:

Germany

Explanation:

The First Moroccan Crisis took place in 1905 when the German Kaiser visited Morocco and declared himself in support of Moroccan independence. This was seen as a direct challenge to French control over the territory and almost led to war. At a conference to decide the issue, Germany found that it was supported only by Austria-Hungary and that Britain, Italy, Russia, and the United States (as well as several other countries) all supported French claims.

Example Question #9 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

The policy of Appeasement refers to the negotiations that __________.

Possible Answers:

the division of Germany into two different states after World War II

created a German state without a military presence after World War I

the unification of all German-speaking lands under the Nazi Party's rule

involved Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of Great Britain seeking agreements to avoid war with Nazi Germany

the building up of defenses along France's border with Germany after World War I

Correct answer:

involved Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain of Great Britain seeking agreements to avoid war with Nazi Germany

Explanation:

In the late 1930s, Adolph Hitler, as leader of the Nazi Party and Chancellor of Germany, sought to annex the German-speaking lands that were not under German control. Many nations were worried about Hitler's aggressiveness and wanted to avoid another World War, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain followed a policy of Appeasement, which sought to accede certain things to Germany while avoiding war. Chamberlain famously stated in 1938, after the Munich Pact, that he had achieved "peace in our time." Nazi Germany would invade Poland and start World War II on September 1, 1939.

Example Question #10 : Domestic And Foreign Policies

The Holy Alliance was formed to preserve, by armed intervention in foreign affairs if necessary, Europe's conservative Christian order in the face of revolutionary change. The alliance was comprised of which three nations?

Possible Answers:

Spain, Portugal, and Italy

Denmark, Sweden, and Poland

France, Russia, and Great Britain

Austria, Prussia, and Russia

France, Great Britain, and the Netherlands

Correct answer:

Austria, Prussia, and Russia

Explanation:

The Holy Alliance was formed in the wake of the Napoleonic wars in Europe. Napoleon had launched a continent-wide revolution as he completely remade the legal systems of the countries he conquered with his Civil Code and further destabilized European politics by ushering in the era of arming the masses. The reactionary powers in Austria, Prussia, and Russia feared that, despite Napoleon's ultimate defeat, revolutionary wars would continue to plague Europe. The three core members pledged to offer aid in putting down revolutions across Europe. The Holy Alliance would play an important part, for instance, in putting an end to the revolutions of 1848.

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