# AP Environmental Science : Reproductive Patterns and Principles

## Example Questions

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### Example Question #1 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

A population of dingoes in an Outback region of Australia includes 120 individuals at the start of 2011. At the start of 2012, researchers had observed 18 births and 2 deaths. In addition, they observed 2 individuals immigrating and 3 individuals emigrating. What is the population's net growth rate?

100%

88.90%

1.13%

12.50%

0.13%

12.50%

Explanation:

The population's new size at the start of 2012 was = original population + (births + immigrations) - (deaths + emigrations) = 120 + (18 + 2) - (2 + 3) = 135. Then, the net population growth rate is equal to (net change in population / size of old population) = 15/120 = .125.

### Example Question #2 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

K-strategist species exhibit all of the following characteristics except __________.

Little time spent by parents raising offspring

Relatively long life expectancies

Late age of maturity

Produces relatively few offspring

Little time spent by parents raising offspring

Explanation:

Species designated as K-strategists thrive through longevity and have a higher survival rate at birth, but produce far fewer offspring. Examples include elephants and whales. Consider an elephant; it may produce relatively few baby elephants, but these baby elephants each have the potential to live relatively long lives. On the other hand, contrast K-strategists like elephants with r-strategists like rats, locusts, and flies. These species are designated as r-strategists because in contrast, they produce numerous offspring, few of which may survive to adulthood, and each one of which reaches maturity quickly and lives a relatively short life. K-strategists in general spend more time than r-strategists caring for and raising their offspring; they have fewer offspring, so they put more care into ensuring the survival of each one. Contrast elephants with frogs to see this difference; elephants care for their young, while frogs lay their eggs and care for their offspring very little, if at all.

### Example Question #2 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

A species designated as "r-strategist" is characterized by all of the following except __________.

High reproductive rate

Long life expectancy

Little time spent by parents caring for and raising offspring

Low age of maturity

Small size

Long life expectancy

Explanation:

Species described as "r-strategist" have a survival strategy of producing large numbers of offspring, a short life expectancy, and typically smaller body sizes. Examples include mice, locusts, and frogs. These species survive by producing lots of offspring, since many individuals don't survive to adulthood.

### Example Question #3 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

Which of the following mammals is an "r-selected" species?

Human

Blue whale

All of these

Cottontail rabbit

Cottontail rabbit

Explanation:

R-selected individuals are characterized by the following: early age of sexual maturity, many lifetime reproductive events, large numbers of offspring per event, and minimal parenting. Many of the offspring of r-selected species will die before adulthood. On the other hand, K-selected individuals have only one or few offspring at once and invest larger amounts of time and energy into parenting to ensure survival. The rabbit is the only species listed whose life traits can be categorized as being r-selected.

### Example Question #5 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

A brand new country, named Neoland, has a growth rate of 4%. How many years will it take the population of Neoland to double?

2 years

20 years

8 years

18 years

18 years

Explanation:

Use the Rule of 72:

is rate of growth

is time (in years) it takes to double

By manipulating the equation to divide 72 by the given growth rate, you can find the number of years it takes for the population to double.

### Example Question #2 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

Which of the following is a false statement regarding genetic mutations?

Mutations are the main source of genetic variation

Mutations occur at high rates

Mutations are changes in nucleotide subunits

Most mutations are unfavorable to an individual

Mutations occur at high rates

Explanation:

Mutations occur at low rates. They are rare and not very common in most individuals. This explains why the process of evolution and adaptation occurs over long periods of time.

### Example Question #4 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

Which of the following factors affect birth rates?

Child laborers

Religion

All of these

Education level of women

Average marriage age

All of these

Explanation:

The use of child laborers leads to higher birth rates. More children are needed to support families and households. Educating women also decreases birth rates. This is the reason why developing countries tend to have higher birth rates than developed countries. A lower average marriage age leads to an increase in birth rates. Religion can influence birth rates, either raising or lowering (generally it raises the birth rate).

### Example Question #4 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

Corals often coordinate spawning so that, in the span of one night, thousands of gametes are released at once. Predatory fish are typically overwhelmed by the amount of potential prey and cannot possibly consume every gamete.

Corals are considered __________.

Asexual

K-selected species

Fungi

R-selected species

R-selected species

Explanation:

Corals are r-selected species, categorized by producing many offspring at once, which individually have low chances of survival, and short lifespans. Other r-strategists include rodents, insects, and other small-bodied, early-maturing animals. K-selected species produce few offspring and invest lots of parental care to ensure a higher chance of survival. Humans are an example of a K-selected species.

### Example Question #5 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

Which of these animals is a K-selected species?

Turtle

Elephant

Bullfrog

Gerbil

Elephant

Explanation:

Elephants are large-bodied and give birth to only one offspring every few years, and mothers have a large role as caregivers to ensure the survival of their young. The other species listed here are r-selected species and have many offspring at a time. In some cases, r-selected species do not parent. In others, offspring mature very quickly and parents do not have to provide care for very long.

### Example Question #6 : Reproductive Patterns And Principles

A scientist observed a population of ants at a research site over the course of five years. He noticed that as the density of the population increased, the population growth rate began to stabilize over time. What ecology principle was the scientist observing with the ants?

Density dependence

Density independence

Exponential growth

Bottleneck event